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Naslov:SODNI POSTOPKI PRED IN PO LETU 1830 (SODNI RED CESARJA JOŽEFA II. IN FRANCA II. )
Avtorji:Poštenjak, Antonio (Avtor)
Holcman, Borut (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Datoteke:.pdf UNI_Postenjak_Antonio_2014.pdf (874,61 KB)
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Diplomsko delo (m5)
Tipologija:2.11 - Diplomsko delo
Organizacija:PF - Pravna fakulteta
Opis:Sodni postopki predstavljajo izjemno široko pojmovno usmeritev samega dogajanja in postopanja pred sodiščem. Sam pojem, vsebina, sam potek, način sojenja, pristojnosti, kazni, sama funkcija sodišča, ter uporaba prava se je skozi zgodovino izjemno spreminjala. Pojem sodnih postopkov opredeljuje pravni terminološki slovar, ki kot "sodne" navaja določena zaključena pravna dejanja ali postopanja pred sodišči, za "postopke" pa pravi, da gre za določen proces ali skupek dejanj. Postopanja pred sodišči ali sodne postopke je potrebno za boljše razumevanje ter neko sistematično obdelavo umestiti v zgodovinsko obdobje. Omeniti je potrebno krvno sodstvo (Blutgericht), ki se je pojavilo šele nekje v poznem srednjem veku, kot oblika sodnih procesov, za katere pa je bilo značilno, da se je odločalo o življenju in smrti obdolženega, ki pa je bil v večini primerov storilec težkih kaznivih dejanj. Za krvno sodstvo je bilo značilno še posebej okrutno mučenje obdolžencev, kar je največkrat pripeljalo do priznanj kaznivih dejanj, nemalokrat pa je bilo priznanje izsiljeno, ter plod nečloveških muk in trpljenj, med samimi mučenji. V tem času je poleg navedenega bila aktualna še tortura (torture), je oblika nasilnega poseganja v pravice posameznika, v psihični in (ali) fizični sferi. Zaradi takratne miselnosti ljudi, ki je visoko cenila priznanje so organi sodnega postopka morali doseči priznanje z kakršnimikoli metodami. Do omilitve teh strahotno krutih postopkov pride leta 1507 s sprejemom Bamberške odredbe, ki omili kruto metodiko in same kazni. Dokončno omilitev pa je s Constitutio Criminalis Carolina upeljal cesar Karel V. Habsburški leta 1532. V letu 1514 je prišlo do podelitve pomembne pravice Ljubljančanom v obliki Malefičnega privilegija, ki jim je omogočal izvrševanje krvnega sodstva v primerih težjih kaznivih dejanj, sodišča pa so tako dobila status privilegiranih deželnih sodišč. Čarovniški procesi in preganjanje čarovnic so še en element srednjeveškega sodstva. Kaznovanje se je razlikovalo v odvisnosti od obtožbe, vendar je Kazenski zakonik Karla V. že podrobno urejal kaznivo dejanje čarovništva, čaranja ali veščarije. Če so bili navedeni dejavniki izpolnjeni je prišlo do zaslišanja in posledično do same torture. Za vodenje samega čarovniškega procesa je bilo potrebno privilegirano sodišče ali pa prisotnost deželnoknežjega krvnega sodnika. Zanimiva je tudi tajnost postopka, ki pozna le javno razglasitev sodbe, brez možnosti pritožbe. Do končnega konca tega sramotnega obdobja zgodovine je prišlo šele s spremembo miselnosti ljudi v času Marije Terezije, ki je čarovništvo "ukinila". Po koncu obdobja čarovništva pridemo do gorskih pravd in gorskega prava, ki je bilo nek skupek pravnih pravil, ki so urejala pravna razmerja na gorah. V primeru nesoglasij je prihajalo do gorskih pravd, sodnih postopkov skupnosti na gori, ki so lahko sodile v premoženjskih, upravnih in manj pomembnih kazenskih zadevah. Deloma novejše obdobje se je začelo z obdobjem pravnega absolutizma in Jožefa II., okrog leta 1700 z razvojem manufaktur. Glavne značilnosti obdobja so pragmatična sankcija ter ustanavljanje različnih upravnih uradov. Jožef II. s svojimi številnimi reformami loči sodstvo od uprave z ustanovitvijo vrhovnega pravosodnega urada, ki je v njegovi dobi postalo prvo tretje instančno sodišče, na katero so se vlagale pritožbe, v primeru, da se stranke niso strinjale z razsodbo, ter so želele vložiti pravno sredstvo. Jožef II. je opisane dogodke nadgradil s sprejemom Zakona o kriminalnih zločinih in kriminalnih kaznih s katerim je uvedel prvo jasno formulacijo načela, da je za kaznovanje potreben naklep in prosta volja, ter pomembno omejil uporabo smrtne kazni. V njegovem zakoniku so se pojavila posebej obdelana kazniva dejanja zoper vladarja in državo. Dodatno pojasnilo in še novejši zakonik je bil sprejet leta 1803 v okviru Zakonika o zločinih in težkih policijskih prestopkih, ki prvi uvede institut olajševalne okoliščine zara
Ključne besede:Krvno sodstvo, Malefični privilegij, Constitutio Criminalis Carolina, Constitutio Criminali Theresiana, Marija Terezija, Jožef II., Franc II., Code penal, ODZ
Leto izida:2014
Založnik:[A. Poštenjak]
Izvor:Maribor
UDK:343(091)(043.2)
COBISS_ID:4789803 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:7B3MCLJZ
Število ogledov:961
Število prenosov:256
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Področja:PF
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:COURT PROCEEDINGS BEFORE AND AFTER YEAR 1830 (COURT RULES EMPEROR JOSEPH II. AND FRANCIS II.)
Opis:Actions and procedures in the court are part of an extremely wide concept called judicial proceedings. The term, content, course and method of legal trial, the jurisdiction, the penalties, the function of court and the law application have changed extremely throughout the history. Legal dictionary defines judicial proceedings as any court proceeding undertaken by a judge, such as a trial or hearing. The term is composed out of two words. One of them being “judicial” which is referring to a judge, court or the court system and the other one being “proceedings” which means any legal filing, hearing, trial and/or judgment in the ongoing conduct of a lawsuit or criminal prosecution. For a better understanding and systematic processing of judicial proceedings we have to place them in certain historical period. In late medieval times the Blood Court (Blutgericht) has appeared as one form of the judicial proceedings. Typically this was a process in which it was decided about life or death of severe criminals. Blood Court was characterized as especially cruel treatment of suspects which often led to confessions of criminal offenses. Confessions were often forced as a result of inhumane conditions and pain during torture. At this time torture was also popular. This was a form of violent interference in to the rights of individuals on mental and (or) physical level. Because people highly appreciated admission at the time, judicial authorities were forced to achieve admission at any cost. Cruel methods and penalties were not mitigated until 1507, when Bamberg code was adopted. Complete mitigation of methods and penalties was introduced in 1532 when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor accepted Constitutio Criminalis Carolina. An important right has been granted to the citizens of Ljubljana in 1514. It was called “Malefični privilegij” and it allowed them to exercise Blood Court in cases of severe criminal offenses and simultaneously gave them the status of privileged Regional Court. The witch trials and persecution of witches was another element of medieval justice. Punishment differed depending on the allegations, but the criminal code of Charles V already regulated the witchcraft, sorcery and hex crimes in detail. If the given factors were fulfilled, hearing and consequently torture was carried out. Jurisdiction of a privileged court or a provincial blood judge was needed to conduct witch hunt. Confidentiality of the proceedings with public announcement of the judgment and no appeal was also interesting. This shameful period of history finally ended in the time of Maria Theresa when witchcraft was “abolished” and the mindset of people has changed. After the end of the witchcraft period came the period of mountain litigation and law. This was a set of legal rules which regulated the legal relationships in the mountains. In the case of disagreement mountain litigations were initiated and mountain communities were given the opportunity to judge in civil, administrative and minor criminal matters. A new period began with the development of manufactures around year 1700. This was a period of Joseph II and legal absolutism. The main characteristics of this period were pragmatic sanctions and establishment of various administrative offices. With its numerous reforms Joseph II separated justice from the administration and established the Supreme Judicial Office. This was the first Supreme Court to which the appeals were filed in the event that the first two instances ruled otherwise. Based on the above mentioned events Joseph II adopted the Austrian Code dealing with crimes and penalties. The code dealt with the principle of responsibility in a more systematic and correct manner than any of the earlier codes and it also significantly limited the use of death penalty. Special offenses against the emperor and the state were also introduced in the Austrian Code. Penal Statute for Crimes and Graver Police Offences was adopted in 1803 and it introduced the institute of mitigating circumstances due to child neglect. Civi
Ključne besede:Blood Court, Malefični privilegij, Constitutio Criminalis Carolina, Constitutio Criminali Theresiana, Maria Theresa, Joseph II., Francis II., Code penal, ODZ


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