|Opis:||The need for goods exchange dates back to ancient history and has evolved over the years, advancing alongside industrialization and globalization. Globalization is synonymous with connecting and opening up development opportunities in all areas of activity, based on the interdependence of the world. Some countries operate as individuals in the market, while others, depending on their political will and conditions, form integrations. Slovenia, as a full member of the European Union, engages in international trade based on the policies of the European Union. It trades with non-EU countries based on bilateral agreements and free trade agreements aimed at improving access to global markets for businesses.
In the theoretical part of this thesis, we presented globalization and its effects, as well as the characteristics of international trade in goods and services. We also examined the international nomenclature used for statistical purposes, which is crucial for forming the trade balance.
In the empirical part of this thesis, we collected data on international trade at the EU level, between EU member states, between EU member states and non-member states, between EU member states and Russia, between EU member states and Ukraine, between Slovenia and Russia, and between Slovenia and Ukraine. This data was obtained from various Slovenian and international databases with the aim of determining the impact of the Russian-Ukrainian war on goods and services exchange. We found that over the past 25 years, international trade between Slovenia and Russia, as well as between Slovenia and Ukraine, has increased annually in both imports and exports. Based on data from January to July in 2020, 2021, and 2022, we observed that during the comparative period, both imports and exports of goods between Slovenia and Ukraine (in €) were at their lowest in 2020, decreased even further in 2021, and increased in 2022. In terms of quantity (in kg), exports of goods from Slovenia to Ukraine were highest in 2022, while imports of goods from Ukraine to Slovenia were lowest. Regarding services, the most profitable areas of international trade between Slovenia and Ukraine (in €) in 2020 were travel, business travel, and transport. Data from the first seven months (January to July) between 2020 and 2022, between Russia and Slovenia, indicate that trade in goods in 2022 (in €) was highest, while quantitatively (in kg), imports from Russia to Slovenia during the same period increased, and exports from Slovenia to Russia decreased in 2022. The international exchange of services between Slovenia and Russia was financially strongest (in €) in the field of air transport, other transport, and travel.
The war between Russia and Ukraine has an impact on both consumers and governments. To mitigate its consequences, governments are compelled to implement short-term and long-term measures, but the most effective measure to reduce the impact of the war on the global economy would be its prompt resolution.