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Title:Nevtralnost interneta: človekova pravica v digitalni dobi? : magistrsko delo
Authors:ID Breškon, Andreja (Author)
ID Hojnik, Janja (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
ID Weingerl, Petra (Co-mentor)
Files:.pdf MAG_Breskon_Andreja_2021.pdf (852,56 KB)
MD5: 91FB8F0C5F27F2A1AF2A9DA5251F4805
PID: 20.500.12556/dkum/0de97063-d4de-4f4c-b199-588c0666737b
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Pojav interneta velja za globalni fenomen, saj si življenja brez njegove pomoči ne bi več znali predstavljati. Internet lahko svoj uspeh pripiše ravno odprtosti, saj je z lahkoto prosto dostopen vsakomur in vsepovsod. Uporabniki, ki imajo možnost internetne povezave, lahko do informacij na internetnem omrežju dostopajo skoraj neomejeno. Da bi se omogočile čimbolj kakovostne spletne storitve in splošna internetna uporaba, pa se posamezniki ne smejo soočati s posebnimi omejitvami glede dostopa do omrežja ali drugimi omejitvami pri uporabi storitev, aplikacij in vsebin na internetu. Za takšne primere se je zato uveljavilo načelo nevtralnosti omrežja. Uvodoma magistrsko delo prikazuje splošno opredelitev pojma in njegov razvoj ter, primerjavo pravnega področja nekaterih neevropskih držav (predvsem Združene države Amerike). Področje nevtralnosti interneta namreč izhaja iz pravice do interneta in se tako razteza po vsem svetu. Ne glede na različne nacionalne zakonodaje je definicija načela vedno opredeljena enako. Za boljše razumevanje je predstavljena tudi sodna praksa, ki pa se v Evropski uniji zaenkrat osredotoča zgolj na en primer Sodišča Evropske unije, saj je nevtralnost omrežja relativno nov pojem. Ne glede na ustrezno evropsko zakonodajo in smernice, ki so v pomoč državam članicam pri uveljavitvi nacionalne zakonodaje o nevtralnem internetu, pa tveganje še vedno predstavlja pravna neenotnost držav članic na tem področju. Magistrsko delo med drugimi preučuje tudi ustreznost ureditve slovenske uzakonitve pojma nevtralnosti ter ali le-ta zadostuje ali bi bile na tem področju potrebne dopolnitve. Ugotavljam, da se nevtralnost omrežja hkrati povezuje tudi z načelom odprtega interneta in načelom brezplačnega interneta. Kljub hitremu razvoju digitalnega ekosistema pa glavno težavo še vedno predstavlja pomanjkljiva tehnična infrastruktura in cenovna nedostopnost interneta. Glavna tema, na katero se v magistrski nalogi osredotočam, je odgovor na vprašanje »Ali bi se nevtralnost interneta lahko uvrščala v sklop temeljnih človekovih pravic?«. Razprave o tem, da bi internet lahko postal nova človekova pravica, se sicer že pojavljajo, vendar zaenkrat še niso dovolj intenzivne za dejansko uresničitev. Pravica do interneta s svojo učinkovitostjo, razsežnostjo in vplivom trenutno še ne izpolnjuje kriterijev za uvrstitev med temeljne človekove pravice. Podobno velja tudi za nevtralnost interneta. Če bi bila nevtralnost interneta temeljna človekova pravica, bi posamezniki namreč imeli takšne privilegije, da bi lahko prosto odločali, na kakšen način in kako bodo uporabljali internet, katere informacije, storitve ali aplikacije bodo z njegovo pomočjo iskali in se jih posluževali, brez omejitev. Slednje bi vplivalo na celotno strukturo svetovne družbe. Prihodnost interneta in telekomunikacijskih sredstev zaenkrat ostaja še vedno nepredvidljiva in posledično nedorečena. Razvoj se trenutno usmerja v brezplačno dostopne točke na javnih mestih. Na takšen način se omogoča vsaj začasno dostopanje do interneta tistim uporabnikom, ki si ga sicer ne morejo privoščiti. Ker internetna povezava na žalost ostaja posebna ugodnost sodobne družbe, pravne določbe o priznanju novih človekovih pravic v digitalni dobi ostajajo prevelik izziv.
Keywords:nevtralnost omrežja, odprt internet, ponudniki internetnih storitev, Uredba 2015/2120, Zakon o elektronskih komunikacijah, BEREC, svoboda izražanja
Place of publishing:Maribor
Place of performance:Maribor
Publisher:[A. Breškon]
Year of publishing:2021
Number of pages:62 f.
PID:20.500.12556/DKUM-80655 New window
UDC:342.7:004.865(043.3)
COBISS.SI-ID:81151747 New window
Publication date in DKUM:18.10.2021
Views:558
Downloads:153
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:PF
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Licences

License:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Description:The most restrictive Creative Commons license. This only allows people to download and share the work for no commercial gain and for no other purposes.
Licensing start date:27.09.2021

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Net neutrality: a new human right in digital era?
Abstract:We can say that internet and its whole evolution can be compared to the global phenomenon, because in our daily life, we can’t normally function without it. Its success is based on the fact that it’s open, which means it’s easy accessible to everyone and everywhere. Users who are lucky enough to have internet connection, can also have unlimited access to everything that is available on the internet. Everyone should be able to have free internet access and its services, applications or other contents that can be found there. Also everyone should have quality internet connections, services, without any limitations. That’s why net neutrality rule came into use. In the first part of the thesis general definitions are represented, together with development of net neutrality and compartments to other countries (especially to the USA). Net neutrality rule evolved from the right to internet and its spreading all around the globe. For better understanding, thesis provides also case law. Till now, Court of Justice ruled only in one case for Hungary. Besides, net neutrality is still relatively new rule. Despite of EU having good legislation and guideline for helping and making sure net neutrality rule is followed, one of the risk is different legal base in different countries. Author is focusing on weather net neutrality rule in Slovenian legislation is enacted well enough. Main focus that author gives is trying to respond on question »weather is it possible that net neutrality will be one day one of the fundamental human rights? «. Net neutrality is also connected with the principle of open internet and principle of free internet. Despite quick development of the digital ecosystem, the main problem is remaining and focusing on very poor infrastructure and high prices of the internet connectivity. Discussions about weather internet will become a new human right had already began, but they are still at the beginning of the process. Or at least for now. The right to internet with its global affect still doesn’t meet the high criteria to be counted as a fundamental human right in the Declaration of Human rights. Same goes for net neutrality. If net neutrality would become human right, anyone can have privileges of freely deciding how, when and for what purposes will they use internet. There won’t be any limits. Regarding all what was said, it can also have a great effect on the global society. Future of the internet and telecommunication tools is for now unsure and needless to say unpredictable. Development is currently focusing on free internet points, located in public places, with that, users who can’t afford internet access, can still connect on internet. Internet connectivity still remains as a special privilege of our modern society, rules and articles about new human rights in new digital age represent too big of a challenge.
Keywords:net neutrality, open internet, internet service providers, Regulation 2015/2120, Electronic communications Act, BEREC, freedom of expression


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