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Title:Medvrstniško nasilje v osnovni šoli in spoprijemanje z njim
Authors:Paller, Iren (Author)
Vršnik Perše, Tina (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf MAG_Paller_Iren_2021.pdf (548,24 KB)
MD5: 538E002DA0D6627C9488F5482AB64C7C
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Abstract:V teoretičnem delu zaključnega dela smo opisovali sam pojav nasilja. Koboltova (1991; povz. po Aničić idr., 2002) pravi, da je nasilje potencialno del vsakega posameznika. Brejc in drugi (2009) nasilno ravnanje v medosebnih odnosih razlagajo kot nekaj nedopustnega, saj s takšnim vedenjem kršimo pravice sočloveka. Nadaljevali smo z osvetlitvijo pojmov medvrstniškega nasilja in zlorabe moči. Predstavili smo opredelitev medvrstniškega nasilja ter značilnosti, vrste in vloge učencev v medvrstniškem nasilju. Habbe (2000) omenja, da se otrok v fazi odraščanja vključuje v različna nova okolja. To so vrtec, šola in igrišče, kjer je primoran stopiti v stik z drugimi otroki in odraslimi. Pečjakova (2014) za nasilje, ki se odvija med vrstniki, uporablja izraz iz novejše literature – medvrstniško nasilje. Vidi ga kot agresivno vedenje, ki je namerno in vključuje neravnovesje moči med žrtvijo in napadalcem. Pomemben del teoretičnega dela naloge je bil predstavitev vloge in aktivnosti šole pri nasilju. Habbe (2000) poudarja, da je za učinkovito obvladovanje varnosti učencev pomembno ozračje, ki ne dovoljuje nasilja, da šola oblikuje lastno strategijo in ima razvit sistem za preprečevanje nasilja in takojšnje ukrepanje v primeru nasilja. Cankar in drugi (2009) dodajajo, da kakovostno sodelovanje in tesno povezovanje staršev in šole prav tako veliko pripomore k učinkovitemu doseganju vzgojno-izobraževalnega cilja. Na koncu prvega dela smo opisali pristope, ki so učinkoviti pri zmanjševanju medvrstniškega nasilja. K reševanju nasilja v šoli lahko pristopimo tudi s šolsko in vrstniško mediacijo, ki ju prepoznamo po njuni nevtralni in spodbujevalni naravi (Kroflič idr. 2011). Za mediacijo je značilno, da išče rešitve, spodbuja sodelovanje in ne brska po preteklosti ter ni usmerjena na vzroke za dogodke (Prgić, 2011). Učenci se naučijo konstruktivnega reševanja konfliktov, kako jih bolje reševati (Prgić, 2010). Navedeno je bilo, da je nasilje, ki se pojavlja v šolah, vezano na družinske, medvrstniške odnose in različne dejavnike v šoli. Glede na to je bilo pomembno, da smo raziskali, kakšno vlogo ima pri tem razrednik. V empiričnem delu smo želeli preučiti tematiko medvrstniškega nasilja, kakšne možnosti ima razrednik pri medvrstniškem nasilju in kako se učitelji razredniki spoprijemajo z njim. Zanimalo nas je stališče učiteljev razrednikov, kako pogosto zaznavajo ta pojav v njihovem razredu, kako se mu zoperstavljajo ter kako ga rešujejo. Uporabili smo deskriptivno metodo empiričnega pedagoškega raziskovanja. Podatki so bili zbrani s pomočjo anketnega vprašalnika za učitelje razrednike na sedmih (dvojezičnih in enojezičnih) izbranih osnovnih šolah. Vzorec anketirancev je obsegal 60 učiteljev v prvi triadi in 32 učiteljev v drugi triadi. Podatke smo interpretirali na podlagi absolutne in odstotne frekvence, kot tudi z analizo odvisnih zvez med spremenljivkami z χ² preizkusom na ravni tveganja (p ≤ 0,05). Rezultati so pokazali, da obstajajo statistično značilne razlike v zaznavanju pojava medvrstniškega nasilja. Statistično delne razlike so v pogostosti medvrstniškega nasilja glede na spol učencev, v najpogostejši obliki medvrstniškega nasilja v razredu med fanti in med dekleti, v učiteljevem spopadanju z medvrstniškim nasiljem, v učiteljevih prijemih ob zaznavi medvrstniškega nasilja, v ukrepih za ohranjanje nenasilja in v vplivu šolske mediacije na učenca in razred. V primeru mnenja učiteljev o padanju, naraščanju ali nespreminjanju medvrstniškega nasilja na šolah nismo odkrili statistično značilne razlike, torej ugotovitve kažejo različna mnenja učiteljev. V zaključnem delu naloge so podane temeljne ugotovitve, kjer napovemo trende in nekaj rešitev za reševanje in obvladovanje medvrstniškega nasilja.
Keywords:medvrstniško nasilje, osnovna šola, učitelj razrednik, učinkoviti pristopi
Year of publishing:2020
Publisher:[I. Paller]
Source:Maribor
UDC:37.015.3:364.632:373.3(043.2)
COBISS_ID:55843843 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:1WRC7OU2
Views:104
Downloads:34
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Categories:PEF
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Licences

License:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Description:The most restrictive Creative Commons license. This only allows people to download and share the work for no commercial gain and for no other purposes.
Licensing start date:18.12.2020

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Bullying and handling bullying issues in elementary school
Abstract:The theoretical section of the final paper describes the phenomenon of violence. Kobolt (1991, as cited in Aničić et al., 2002) states that violence is potentially a part of every individual. Brejc et al. (2009) explain violent behaviour in interpersonal relationships as unacceptable because it violates a person’s rights. The paper continues by shedding light on peer violence and abuse of power. It gives a definition of peer violence and the characteristics, types and roles of students in peer violence. Habbe (2000) mentions that in the growing-up phase the child becomes involved in various new environments, namely the kindergarten, school and playground, where they are forced to come into contact with other children and adults. Pečjak (2014) uses a term from recent literature to describe the violence taking place among peers, i.e. peer violence. She views it as aggressive behaviour that is intentional and involves an imbalance of power between the victim and the attacker. A considerable part of the paper’s theoretical section is devoted to presenting the role and activity of the school in cases of violence. Habbe (2000) emphasises that in order to effectively maintain students’ safety the school climate must not allow violence; the school must design its own strategy and develop a system for violence prevention and immediate action in cases of violence. Cankar et al. (2009) add that quality cooperation and a close connection between the parents and the school also contribute a great deal to efficiently achieving the educational objective. At the end of section one, the approaches that have proved effective in reducing peer violence are described. Solving the problem of school violence can also be tackled by means of school and peer mediation, which are characterized by being neutral and stimulating (Kroflič et al., 2011). It is typical of mediation that it looks for solutions, encourages cooperation, does not dig up the past, and is not focused on the causes of events (Prgić, 2011). Students learn how to resolve conflicts constructively and in a better way (Prgić, 2010). It has been mentioned that the violence taking place in schools is connected with family and peer relationships, and with various school factors. It was therefore important to examine the role of the class teacher in the matter. The empirical section examines the topic of peer violence, the options available to the class teacher in cases of peer violence, and how class teachers deal with peer violence. I was interested in the opinions of class teachers regarding how often they notice this phenomenon in their class, how they confront it, and how they resolve it. The descriptive method of empirical pedagogical research was used. The data were collected by means of a survey questionnaire for class teachers at selected seven (bilingual and monolingual) primary schools. The sample of respondents comprised 60 teachers in the first triennium and 32 teachers in the second triennium. The data were interpreted based on the absolute frequency and the percentage frequency, and by analysing the dependence between variables with the χ² test at the risk level (p ≤ 0.05). The results have shown that there are statistically significant differences in the perception of the phenomenon of peer violence. Statistically partial differences have been observed in the frequency of peer violence based on the students’ gender; in the most common form of peer violence in the classroom between boys and between girls; in how the teacher deals with peer violence; in the teacher’s actions when noticing peer violence; in the measures taken to preserve non-violence; and in the impact of school mediation on the student and on the class. As regards the teachers’ opinions on the decline, increase or stagnation of peer violence at the schools no statistically significant difference has been observed, indicating that the findings reflect the teachers’ divergent opinions. The concluding section
Keywords:bullying, elementary school, class teacher, effective steps


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