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Title:Povezano, kolektivno in nadaljevano kaznivo dejanje : magistrsko delo
Authors:Islamčević Lešnik, Valentina (Author)
Šepec, Miha (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf MAG_Islamcevic_Lesnik_Valentina_2020.pdf (724,49 KB)
MD5: 0BA002930E7A99B523799B2079A71C6E
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Magistrsko delo obravnava več institutov povezanih z večkratno izvršitvijo istega kaznivega dejanja ali uresničitvijo zakonskih znakov več kaznivih dejanj s strani istega storilca. O idealnem steku kaznivih dejanj govorimo, ko storilec izpolni znake več kaznivih dejanj z enotnim dejanjem. Če zakonske znake več inkriminacij storilec izpolni z najmanj dvema izvršitvenima ravnanjema, govorimo o realnem steku kaznivih dejanj. V kazenskopravni teoriji je pomembnejša razmejitev med pravim in navideznim stekom, saj pri pravem steku kaznivih dejanj storilec odgovarja za več kaznivih dejanj, medtem ko pri navideznem steku storilec odgovarja zgolj za eno kaznivo dejanje. Navideznost se med steki vzpostavi zaradi posebnega odnosa specialnosti, subsidiarnosti ali konsumpcije med inkriminacijami ali zaradi nepomembnosti in zanemarljivosti enega kaznivega dejanja napram drugemu. Na podlagi izpolnitve zakonskih znakov gre za eno kaznivo dejanje tudi pri trajajočih deliktih, kjer se prepovedana posledica kumulira in obnavlja. V sodni praksi se je tudi razvil institut enovitega kaznivega dejanja pri katerem sodišče v eno kaznivo dejanje združi več posameznih kaznivih dejanj zaradi njihove medsebojne povezanosti. Ker je med posameznimi ravnanji podana takšna homogenost, da posamezna kazniva dejanja izgubijo svojo samostojnost, je njihova združitev v eno kaznivo dejanje življenjsko logična in sprejemljiva posledica. Za eno kaznivo dejanje in obliko navideznega steka gre tudi v primeru kolektivnega kaznivega dejanja in nadaljevanega kaznivega dejanja. V teoriji se pojavljajo različna stališča kdaj je kaznivo dejanje kolektivno. Nekateri teoretiki zagovarjajo, da so to kazniva dejanja, ki inkriminirajo serijsko kriminalno dejavnost storilca, drugi pa da na presežen pojem kolektivnega kaznivega dejanja spominjajo kazniva dejanja, ki v zakonskem opisu vsebujejo nedovršne glagole. Novejša sodna praksa kazniva dejanja, ki vsebujejo nedovršne glagole, opredeljuje za kolektivnim podobna dejanja, čeprav jih mestoma v praksi označuje za kolektivna. Za kolektivna kazniva dejanja je značilno, da storilec načrtno izvršuje istovrstna kazniva dejanja, sodna praksa pa dopušča kaznivost tudi za enkratno izvršitev. Do združitve več kaznivih dejanj v eno kaznivo dejanje pride tudi pri nadaljevanem kaznivem dejanju, ki je kodificiran v 54. členu KZ-1. Za uporabo instituta morajo biti izpolnjeni vsi konstantni kriteriji in minimalno en variabilen kriterij. Za izpolnitev konstantnih kriterijev mora biti podan enoten psihičen odnos storilca do kaznivih dejanj, istovrstnost premoženjskih kaznivih dejanj ter časovna kontinuiranost. Kot variabilen kriterij štejejo druge okoliščine, ki dodatno povezujejo posamezna kazniva dejanja v eno kaznivo dejanje (npr. enak način, kraj, isti oškodovanec ipd.). V nadaljevano kaznivo dejanje so ob izpolnjenih pogojih vključena kazniva dejanja storjena v njegovem časovnem obdobju. Po novejšem stališču VSRS je sojenje zoper novoodkrita dejanja, ki bi bila vključena v nadaljevano kaznivo dejanje, če bi se zanje ob sojenju vedelo, dopustno. Prepoved ponovnega sojenja se nanaša na novoodkrita dejanja, le kadar skupaj z dejanji iz sodbe o nadaljevanem kaznivem dejanju tvorijo isti historični dogodek in bi jih bilo nesprejemljivo in nepošteno obravnavati v ločenih postopkih. Takšno stališče spravlja storilce, katerih dejanja ne bodo vključena v en obtožni akt, v bistveno slabši položaj kot storilce, katerih dejanja se bodo obravnavala v enem postopku. Za nadaljevano kaznivo dejanje so namreč določbe o odmeri kazni za kazniva dejanja v steku izrecno izključene.
Keywords:Kazensko pravo, kaznivo dejanje, kolektivno kaznivo dejanje, povezano kaznivo dejanje, nadaljevano kaznivo dejanje, časovna povezanost, steki kaznivih dejanj, čas izvršitve.
Year of publishing:2020
Place of performance:[Maribor
Publisher:V. Islamčević Lešnik]
Number of pages:52 f.
Source:Maribor
UDC:343.221(043.3)
COBISS_ID:42873859 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:MHMHWPBR
Views:208
Downloads:81
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Categories:PF
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Licences

License:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Description:The most restrictive Creative Commons license. This only allows people to download and share the work for no commercial gain and for no other purposes.
Licensing start date:25.11.2020

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Connected, collective and continuing criminal act
Abstract:The master's thesis deals with several institutes related to the realization of the legal signs of several crimes or the fulfillment of the signs of the same crime several times by the same perpetrator. We speak of the ideal stack of criminal offenses when the perpetrator fulfills the signs of several criminal offenses with a single act. If the perpetrator fulfills the legal signs of several incriminations with at least two enforcement actions, we are talking about a real stack of criminal offenses. In criminal law theory, the distinction between real and fictitious stack is more important, since in the case of a real stack of crimes the perpetrator is responsible for several criminal offenses, while in fictitious stack the perpetrator is liable for only one criminal offense. The appearance is established between the stacks due to the special relationship of specialty, subsidiarity or consumption between incriminations or due to the insignificance and negligence of one crime against another. Based on the fulfillment of legal signs, the ongoing crime where the prohibited consequence is cumulated and renewed, is also a single criminal offense. The case law has developed the institute of a single criminal offense, where due to the interconnectedness of individual criminal offenses, it is combined into one criminal offense. Due to the homogeneity of behavior, individual crimes lose their independence and their merging into one crime is a vital logical and acceptable consequence. There is also one criminal offense and a form of fictitious confusion in the case of a collective criminal offense and a continuing criminal offense. In theory, there are different views on when a crime is collective. Some theorists argue that these are crimes that incriminate the serial criminal activity of the perpetrator, while others argue that the transcended notion of a collective crime is reminiscent of crimes that contain imperfective verbs in the legal description. Recent case law defines criminal offenses containing imperfective verbs as similar to the collective, although in some places in practice it classifies them as collective. It is characteristic of collective criminal offenses that the perpetrator deliberately commits the same type of criminal offenses, and the case law also allows conviction for one-time criminal offenses. The merging of several criminal offenses into one criminal offense also occurs in the case of a continuing criminal offense. The institute is codified in Article 54 of KZ-1, which limits the use of the construction only to property crimes. To use the institute, all constant criteria and at least one variable criterion must be met. In order to meet the constant criteria, an uniform mental attitude of the perpetrator towards criminal offenses, the similarity of property criminal offenses and the continuity of time must be given. As a variable criterion are considered other circumstances that additionally connect individual criminal offenses into one criminal offense (eg the same manner, place, the same victim etc.). In the continued criminal offense are included crimes committed during his time period if the conditions are met. According to the more recent position of the Supreme Court, the trial against newly discovered acts, which would be included in the continuing criminal offense, if they were known at the time of the trial, is admissible. The prohibition on retrial applies to newly discovered acts only when, together with the acts contained in the continuing criminal judgment, they constitute the same historical event and it would be unacceptable and unfair to treat them in separate proceedings. Such a position, however, puts perpetrators whose actions will not be included in one indictment in a significantly worse position than perpetrators whose actions will be dealt with in one proceeding. For a continuing criminal offense, the provisions on sentencing for crimes in the stack are explicitly excluded.
Keywords:Criminal law, criminal act, collective crime, connected crime, continued crime, temporal connection, stacks of criminal offenses, time of execution.


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