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Title:Vizualna pozornost voznika na prometno okolje in dogajanje ob prisotnosti motenj znotraj vozila
Authors:Cvahte Ojsteršek, Tina (Author)
Topolšek, Darja (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Areh, Igor (Co-mentor)
Babić, Darko (Co-mentor)
Files:.pdf DOK_Cvahte_Ojstersek_Tina_2021.pdf (10,07 MB)
MD5: 5C75C794892FEB33438DDC6FBD169C6D
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Dissertation (m)
Typology:2.08 - Doctoral Dissertation
Organization:FL - Faculty of Logistic
Abstract:Voznik je ključni del prometnega sistema in glavni razlog za nastanek prometne nesreče, saj lahko v veliki večini vzrok za kritične situacije v prometu najdemo na strani voznika. Motnje, ki vplivajo na voznika med vožnjo, so vedno večja težava. Pri sprejemanju informacij o prometnem okolju in dogajanju predstavlja vizualna pozornost najpomembnejši kanal pridobivanja relevantnih informacij, zato so motnje voznika, ki vplivajo na njegovo vizualno zaznavanje ali procesiranje vizualnih informacij, najpomembnejše z vidika zagotavljanja in ohranjanja varnosti vožnje. Glavni cilj doktorske naloge je bil analizirati in med seboj primerjati 15 potencialnih motenj vizualne pozornosti voznika, ki se pojavljajo znotraj vozila. S tem smo zapolnili raziskovalno vrzel, ki je temeljila predvsem na pomanjkanju raziskav, ki bi omogočale medsebojno primerjavo vpliva motenj vizualne pozornosti na iste osebe in ki bi istočasno z enako metodologijo preverjala večji nabor motenj znotraj vozila. Raziskava je potekala tako, da smo na podlagi ugotovitev obsežnega pregleda literature zasnovali in izvedli terenski eksperiment, kjer smo 23 udeleženih voznikov v realnem okolju izpostavili 15 motnjam znotraj vozila, ki so povezane z uporabo mobilnega telefona (prostoročno ali običajno), iskanjem stvari v avtomobilu ali nastavljanjem ali upravljanjem s sistemi v avtomobilu. Ob tem smo snemali njihovo vidno polje in z napravo za sledenje pogledu ugotavljali njihovo smer gledanja. S tem smo po obdelavi podatkov o smeri gledanja med vožnjo pridobili metrike, ki opisujejo vizualno pozornost voznikov in zajemajo informacije o njihovih pogledih, fiksacijah ter smeri gledanja. Na podlagi statističnih analiz smo rezultate interpretirali v luči varne vožnje, prometne varnosti in implikacij za transport na splošno. Glavni izsledek naloge je dejstvo, da vizualno pozornost voznikov najbolj zmotijo aktivnosti znotraj avtomobila, ki jih navadno opravljajo brez razmišljanja o posledicah in se nanašajo predvsem na nastavljanje sistemov znotraj avtomobila. Najdaljši odstotek trajanja pogledov in fiksacij stran od za vožnjo pomembnih področij med opravljanjem naloge se je pojavilo pri nalogah nastavitve klimatskega sistema, navigacijskega sistema ter nastavljanju radia. Pri vseh nalogah se je pojavila tunelizacija smeri gledanja skozi vetrobransko steklo po horizontalni osi v primerjavi s kontrolnim segmentom vožnje, pri večini nalog pa tudi po vertikalni osi. Kot naloge, ki so z vidika odvrnjene vizualne pozornosti stran od vetrobranskega stekla kot ključnega področja za spremljanje prometnega okolja in dogajanja najbolj problematične, so se pokazale naloge uporabe mobilnega telefona, ki zahtevajo vizualno interakcijo z napravo, ter naloge, ki vključujejo nastavljanje sistemov znotraj avtomobila. Prednjačijo branje in pošiljanje SMS-sporočila ter ogled posnetka na mobilnem telefonu, nastavitev navigacijskega sistema in radia ter nastavljanje stranskih ogledal. Pri teh nalogah je namreč rangiranje pokazalo jasno umestitev med najbolj problematične izmed 15 nalog, s katerimi so se srečali vozniki med testiranjem, hkrati pa so pri teh nalogah vozniki na vetrobransko steklo gledali manj kot 30 % časa opravljanja celotne naloge. Rezultati raziskave kažejo, da poleg motenj znotraj vozila, ki jih poznamo vsi, enakovredno ali še večjo težavo z vidika vpliva na vizualno pozornost voznika na prometno okolje in dogajanje predstavljajo tiste motnje in aktivnosti, o katerih navadno ne razmišljamo kot o potencialno nevarnih in jih tudi izobraževalne kampanje ne umeščajo v svoje nabore. Še posebej je to relevantno v sferi poklicnih voznikov, saj so ti med svojim delom izpostavljeni večjemu naboru motenj znotraj vozila zaradi same narave dela in opreme, ki jo pri njem uporabljajo. Prav tako pa so pogosteje pod vplivom drugih dodatnih dejavnikov, ki potencialno zmanjšujejo njihovo pozornost in odzivnost na dogajanje v prometu, kot na primer utrujenost ali motnje kognitivne pozornosti.
Keywords:prometna varnost, varna vožnja, vizualna pozornost, motnje voznika, sledenje pogledu
Year of publishing:2021
Publisher:[T. Cvahte Ojsteršek]
Source:Celje
UDC:656.1
COBISS_ID:53899523 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:RZVBIMWU
Views:341
Downloads:65
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:FL
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Licences

License:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Description:The most restrictive Creative Commons license. This only allows people to download and share the work for no commercial gain and for no other purposes.
Licensing start date:14.10.2020

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Driver's visual attention to the traffic environment and events in the presence of distractions inside the vehicle
Abstract:The driver is a vital part of the traffic system and the main reason for the occurrence of traffic accidents, as the vast majority of causes of critical traffic situations can be found on the driver’s side. Distractions affecting the driver while driving are an increasing problem. When receiving information about the traffic environment and events, visual attention is the most critical channel for obtaining relevant information, so the distractions that affect the drivers’ visual perception or processing of visual information are the most important in terms of ensuring and maintaining driving safety. The main goal of the doctoral thesis was to analyse and compare 15 potential visual distractions of the driver that occur inside the vehicle. This filled a research gap, which was mainly based on the lack of research that would allow for mutual comparison of the impact of visual attention distractions on the same people and which would simultaneously compare a broader set of distractions within the vehicle using the same methodology. The research was carried out by designing and conducting a field experiment based on the findings of an extensive review of the literature, where we exposed 23 participating drivers to 15 distractions inside the vehicle related to mobile phone use (hands-free or handheld), setting up or operating systems in the car and finding specified thing inside the vehicle. At the same time, we recorded their field of vision and determined their gaze direction with an eye tracking device. In this way, after processing the data on gaze directions while driving, we obtained metrics that describe the visual attention of drivers and include information on their glances and fixations as well as the direction of gaze. Based on statistical analyses, the results were interpreted in the light of safe driving, traffic safety and implications for transport in general. The main result of the dissertation is the fact that the visual attention of drivers is most distracted by activities inside the car, which they usually perform without thinking about the consequences and relate mainly to setting up systems inside the car. The longest percentage of glances and fixations away from areas important for driving occurred in the tasks of setting the temperature on the air conditioning system, inputting an address into the navigation system and setting the radio frequency. In all tasks, there was tunnelling of the gaze direction through the windshield along the horizontal axis compared to the control segment of the drive, and in most tasks also along the vertical axis. The tasks that are the most problematic from the point of view of distracting visual attention away from the windshield as a key area for monitoring the traffic environment and events are the tasks of using a mobile phone, which require visual interaction with the device, and tasks involving setting up systems within the car. Reading and sending an SMS message and viewing a video on a mobile phone, setting up the navigation system and radio, and adjusting the side mirrors are at the forefront. In these tasks, the ranking showed a clear placement among the most problematic of the 15 tasks encountered by drivers during testing, and also in these tasks, drivers looked at the windshield less than 30% of the time of the entire task. The results of the research show that in addition to the distractions inside the vehicle that we all know, an equivalent or even more significant problem in terms of affecting the driver’s visual attention to the traffic environment and events are those distractions and activities that are not usually considered potentially dangerous and are not highlighted in various educational campaigns. This is particularly relevant in the field of professional drivers, as they are exposed to a greater range of in-vehicle distractions during their work due to the nature of the work and equipment they use and are more often influenced by other distractions.
Keywords:traffic safety, driving safety, visual attention, driver distraction, eye tracking


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