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Title:Potrditvena pristranskost v forenziki : magistrsko delo
Authors:ID Rižnar, Lina (Author)
ID Areh, Igor (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf MAG_Riznar_Lina_2020.pdf (1,10 MB)
MD5: A0B474779953759D47ACE03FCDEC7AAE
PID: 20.500.12556/dkum/da896abd-8a34-4eca-8703-b54a8072f170
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:FVV - Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security
Abstract:Magistrska naloga obravnava teoretični pregled problematike potrditvene pristranskosti na forenzično preiskovanje. Pri tem je poudarek namenjen vplivu potrditvene pristranskosti na forenzično obdelavo in interpretacijo prstnih odtisov, saj gre po prepričanju mnogih za najbolj eksaktno in objektivno področje forenzičnega preiskovanja. Teoretični pregled literature in študija primerov poskuša dokazati , da nobena veda v forenzični znanosti ni nezmotljiva ter da številni subjektivni dejavniki in vdor informacij v forenzično delo pomembno vplivajo na izsledke forenzičnih raziskav. Potrditvena pristranskost sodi na področje kognitivnih pristranskosti in je razmeroma slabo raziskano področje. Temeljni problem potrditvene (in ostalih kognitivnih) pristranskosti je, da se pojavlja tako na zavedni kot tudi na nezavedni ravni, kar pomeni, da se preiskovalci njenega vpliva na oblikovanje spoznanj, rezultatov in sodb pogosto niti ne zavedajo. Z namenom preprečevanja vdora (potrditvene) pristranskosti v preiskovalno delo so bili vzpostavljeni številni obrazci samoocenjevanja in samorefleksije, kot tudi postopki preverjanja pridobljenih rezultatov, vendar pa analiza literature in študija primerov ponovno nakazuje, da pritranskost deluje na številnih ravneh (tudi npr. na ravni institucije) ter da se ji v nobeni situaciji ne moremo popolnoma izogniti. PRav zaradi pristranskosti so pod vprašaj postavljene vede, ki do dolgo veljave za "nezmotljive", kar prikazujeta primera Shirley McKie in Brandona Mayfielda. V obeh primerih so bile storjene napake v laboratoriju za analizo prstnih odtisov, pristranska spoznanja in mnenja izvedencev pa so izjemno vplivala na potek življenja obtoencev.
Keywords:forenzika, forenzične preiskave, pristranskost, potrditvena pristranskost, prepričanja, stereotipi, magistrska dela
Place of publishing:Ljubljana
Place of performance:Ljubljana
Publisher:[L. Rižnar]
Year of publishing:2020
Year of performance:2020
Number of pages:VIII, 58 str.
PID:20.500.12556/DKUM-77731 New window
UDC:343.98(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:34615555 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:5XIATFUZ
Publication date in DKUM:28.10.2020
Views:932
Downloads:269
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:FVV
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Confirmation bias in forensics
Abstract:The master's thesis deals with theoretical overview of problem of confirmation bias on forensic investigation. In this respect, particular emphasis is placed on the impact of confirmation bias on forensic processing and interpretation of fingerprints, as many believe is the most exact and objective area of forensic investigation. The theoretical review of literature and case study seeks to demonstrate that no science in forensic science is infallible and that a number of subjective factors and the intrusion of information into forensic work importanly influence on results of forensic research. Confirmation bias falls within the field of cognitive bias and is relatively poorly researched area. The fundamental problem of confirmation (and other cognitive) bias is that it occurs both at conscious and unconscious levels, which means that investigators are often unaware of its influence on the formation of insights, results and judgments. In order to prevent intrusion (of confirmation) bias into investigative work, a number of self-assessment and self-reflection forms have been established, as well as procedures for verifying the results obtained, but the literature analysis and case study again suggests that bias works at a number of levels (including, e.g. at the level of the institution), and that it cannot be completely avoided in any situation. It is precisely because of bias that the science which have long been considered "infallible" as shown by the cases of Shirley McKie and Brandon Mayfield, have been called into question. In both cases, errors were made in the fingerprint analysis laboratory and biased findings and opinions of experts had a profound impact on the course of the defendants' lives.
Keywords:bias, confirmation bias, beliefs, stereotypes, forensics


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