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Title:Plastika v krožnem gospodarstvu v Evropski uniji: vzpostavljanje pravnega in političnega okvira za urejanje plastike : vzpostavljanje pravnega in političnega okvira za urejanje plastike
Authors:Drvarič, Iva (Author)
Weingerl, Petra (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf MAG_Drvaric_Iva_2020.pdf (1,60 MB)
MD5: 96BAFED8A1CAEF56BC5E0F8ECC00550B
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Pravni okvir Evropske unije (v nadaljevanju EU) njenim prebivalcem omogoča uživanje v najvišjih okoljskih standardih na svetu. Čista voda, rodovitna zemlja, čisti zrak in ohranjena narava so pomembne vrednote, k zagotavljanju katerih stremi EU. Kljub začetni odsotnosti pravne podlage za poseganje EU na področje okolja, si je ta, sprva z ustrezno podporo Sodišča Evropske unije (v nadaljevanju Sodišče EU), kasneje pa z vključitvijo izrecnih določb o pristojnosti EU na področju okolja v Pogodbe, vendarle utrla pot na to ter številna druga področja življenja državljanov in delovanja držav članic. Ob zavedanju okoljskih in gospodarskih pritiskov s katerimi se dandanes sooča ves svet, se je med glavne strateške cilje EU v zadnjih letih prikradel koncept krožnega gospodarstva, kot alternativa trenutno prevladujočemu, a izredno netrajnostnemu, linearnemu sistemu. Gre za pojem brez univerzalno sprejete definicije, ki v najširši obliki predstavlja krovni izraz za vse postopke in prakse, ki koncept izrabljenosti nadomeščajo z obnovo, vzpodbujajo preusmeritev na obnovljive vire energije, delujejo v smeri odprave strupenih kemikalij, ki otežujejo ali onemogočajo ponovno uporabo in stremijo k kar se da največjemu zmanjšanju količine odpadkov ter gospodarnejšemu ravnanju z viri. Svetovni gospodarski model je nujno potreben spremembe, če želimo zagotoviti dostojno življenje naraščajočemu številu prebivalstva, ki bi naj do leta 2050 doseglo devet milijard. EU je v zadnjih petnajstih letih sprejela številne dokumente, ki služijo kot trdna opora krožnemu gospodarstvu, najbolj jasno pa je bilo prizadevanje EU za pospešen prehod na krožni model gospodarstva izraženo v leta 2015 sprejetem akcijskem načrtu EU za krožno gospodarstvo. Temu sta sledila še dva pomembna dokumenta, ki nadaljujeta in nadgrajujeta vizijo zastavljeno v akcijskem načrtu iz 2015, evropski zeleni dogovor in novi akcijski načrt EU za krožno gospodarstvo iz leta 2020. Oba akcijska načrta in evropski zeleni dogovor nakazujejo na to, da se je EU lotila preobrazbe gospodarskega sistema v celoti in da krožnega gospodarstva ne enači zgolj z vpeljavo višjih kvot za recikliranje, kar je pogosto, a napačno prepričanje. Plastika je bila zaradi svojih posebnih lastnosti že v akcijskem načrtu iz 2015 določena kot prednostno področje, ki zahteva nujno obravnavo, kar ne preseneča glede na dejstvo, da se danes svet sooča s posebno krizo – plastično krizo. Njena proizvodnja in uporaba se iz dneva v dan povečujeta, pričakuje pa se tudi, da se bosta do leta 2050 potrojila. Ocenjuje se, da je bila velika večina do sedaj proizvedene plastike zavržena na odlagališčih ali drugje v okolju, kjer sedaj povzroča številne težave, za katere se zdi da se z dneva v dan samo še poglabljajo. Krožno gospodarstvo se predstavlja kot ena izmed priložnosti za zmanjšanje negativnih vplivov plastike in za maksimizacijo okoljskih, gospodarskih in družbenih koristi, ki jih ta material vendarle prinaša. Rešitve, ki jih v zvezi s plastiko ponuja krožno gospodarstvo so med drugim: proizvodnja plastike iz fosilnim gorivom alternativnih surovin; preoblikovanje postopkov proizvodnje plastike in plastičnih izdelkov, da se podaljša njihova življenjska doba; ponovna uporaba izdelkov in preprečevanje nastajanja odpadkov; sodelovanje med podjetji in potrošniki za spodbujanje recikliranja; spodbujanje trajnostno naravnanih poslovnih modelov, ki omogočajo koriščenje plastičnih izdelkov v okviru skupne rabe ali najema itd. EU se s problematiko aktivno ukvarja in vestno posodablja zakonodajo ter izdaja politične usmeritve za vpeljavo krožnih praks v zvezi z ravnanjem s plastiko. Zaključno delo obravnava ključne dosežke in nekatere prihodnje ambicije v zvezi z regulacijo plastike v okviru krožnega gospodarstva v Evropski uniji.
Keywords:pravo varstva okolja, krožno gospodarstvo, plastika, recikliranje, razširjena odgovornost proizvajalca, odpadki, odpadna embalaža, akcijski načrt, evropski zeleni dogovor, strategija za plastiko v krožnem gospodarstvu
Year of publishing:2020
Place of performance:[Maribor
Publisher:I. Drvarić]
Number of pages:138 str.
Source:Maribor
UDC:349(043.3)
COBISS_ID:28077571 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:87RLJR05
Views:330
Downloads:88
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Categories:PF
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Licences

License:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Description:The most restrictive Creative Commons license. This only allows people to download and share the work for no commercial gain and for no other purposes.
Licensing start date:24.08.2020

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Plastics in circular economy in the EU: establishing a legal and policy framework for regulating plastics
Abstract:The legal framework of the European Union allows its citizens to enjoy one the highest environmental standards in the world. Clean water, fertile land, clean air and preserved nature are important values that the EU strives to ensure. Despite the initial absence of a legal basis for EU intervention in the field of environment, the EU managed to pave its way, initially with the support of the Court of Justice of the European Union and later with the inclusion of explicit provisions on EU environmental competence in the Treaties, into the environmental field and many other areas of citizens' lives and the functioning of the Member States. Being aware of the environmental and economic pressures that the world is facing today, the EU included the concept of circular economy into its main strategic goals, as an alternative to the currently prevailing, but extremely unsustainable, linear system. Circular economy is a concept without a universally accepted definition, which in its broadest form represents the umbrella term for all of the procedures and practices that replace the end-of-life stage with renewal, encourage a shift to renewable energy, work to eliminate toxic chemicals that hinder or prevent reuse and contribute towards minimization of waste and efficient resource management. The global economic model is in dire need of change if we are to provide a dignified life for a growing population. Over the last fifteen years, the EU has adopted numerous documents that serve as a strong support for the circular economy. The EU's commitment to accelerate the transition to a circular economy was the most undoubtedly expressed in the 2015 EU Circular Economy Action Plan. This was followed by two other important documents that continue and build on the vision set out in the 2015 Action Plan, the European Green Deal and the new Circular Economy Action Plan from 2020. Both Action Plans and the European Green Deal indicate that the EU has undertook the transformation of the economic system as a whole and it does not solely equate the circular economy with the introduction of higher recycling targets, which is a common but flawed belief. Due to its special properties, plastics have already been identified as a priority area that requires urgent treatment in the 2015 Action Plan, which is not surprising given the fact that today's world is facing a special crisis - the plastic crisis. Its production and use are increasing day by day, and are expected to triple by 2050. It is estimated that the vast majority of plastics produced so far have been dumped in landfills or elsewhere in the environment, where they now cause a number of problems that seem to only deepen with every passing day. The circular economy presents itself as one of the opportunities to reduce the negative impacts of plastics and to maximize the environmental, economic and social benefits that this material nevertheless brings. The solutions offered by the circular economy in relation to plastics include: the production of plastics from biobased raw materials as an alternative to fossil fuels; redesigning production processes for plastics and plastic products to extend their lifespan; product reuse and waste prevention; cooperation between businesses and consumers to promote recycling; promoting sustainable business models that allow the use of plastic products in the context of sharing or renting, etc. The EU is actively addressing the issue and diligently updating legislation, as well as issuing policy guidelines for the introduction of circular practices related to plastic management. Some of the key achievements and future ambitions regarding regulation of plastic are adressed in the Mater's Thesis.
Keywords:environmental law, circular economy, plastics, recycling, extended producer responsibility, waste, packaging waste, CE Action Plan, European Green Deal, European strategy for plastics in a circular economy


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