|Opis:||With the rise of the ISIS terrorist group in the Middle East, the problem of destruction, looting, and illegal trade in cultural heritage has spread. Due to easily accessible archaeological sites and easy removal of objects from culturally rich areas, as well as airstrikes on oil infrastructure, ISIS has further increased its dependence and involvement in the antiquities market. Initially, the group maintained its trading through social networks, but with the development of highly advanced technology, their activities have moved to the dark web, where transactions with the help of cryptocurrencies are anonymous and untraceable.
Using a qualitative descriptive method of analysis of written sources, we reviewed domestic and foreign literature and legislation, with the help of which we formed theoretical starting points. We studied and analyzed crime against cultural heritage in the Middle East, which has been a problem since the Syrian civil war in 2011. We came to the conclusion that most illegal activities of terrorist groups have moved to the dark web, where the anonymity of transactions and cyber activities help to facilitate the exchange of funds. ISIS's looting and trafficking in cultural heritage have evolved from opportunistic acts into organized transnational crime to finance terrorist activities, as evidenced by the establishment of a special antiquities control service and a special department to control the excavation and sale of cultural heritage. Using a comparative method, we analyzed three different approaches to cultural heritage protection, forensic archaeometry, DNA tagging, and blockchain technology. Approaches to security were interpreted as good, acceptable, or bad.
Because Blockchain technology offers the ability to create a network where transactions and transfers are securely recorded in a distributed book, we see it as the best approach to cultural heritage protection at the moment, so it is imperative that the art community adopt Blockchain as a new antiquity system to eliminate current instability of documentation or provenance that can be lost or destroyed.|