| | SLO | ENG | Cookies and privacy

Bigger font | Smaller font

Show document

Title:Prenašanje nalezljivih bolezni po kazenskem pravu, primer: COVID-19 : diplomsko delo
Authors:Tement, Melisa (Author)
Šepec, Miha (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UN_Tement_Melisa_2020.pdf (585,44 KB)
MD5: F45059A9E6C5696EE5777FADD10348FB
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Kdo bi še pred nekaj meseci verjel, da se lahko svet za nekaj časa ustavi? Na začetku leta 2020 je svet presenetila pandemija virusa COVID-19, ki je povzročil svetovno »koronakrizo« in poskrbel za velik ekonomski in socialni šok. Države so začele zapirati meje, začasno prekinile delovanje gostinstva in turizma, zapirati so se začele izobraževalne ustanove in ustavil se je velik del proizvodnje. Močno je posegla v človekove pravice in svoboščine na področju družbenega življenja in države prisilila v sprejetje nenadnih in strogih ukrepov. Trdimo lahko, da je kriza ob zdravstvu in ekonomiji močno posegla tudi na pravno področje in razkrila temeljne pomanjkljivosti državnih ureditev. Ustava Republike Slovenije nam določa trajnost človekovih pravic, ki jih je mogoče začasno razveljaviti ali omejiti. Takšno poseganje v človekove pravice je lahko le začasno, v obdobju trajanja izrednih razmer. Ustavno sodišče je v svojih odločbah vzpostavilo načelo sorazmernosti kot eno izmed temeljnih meril ustavno-sodne presoje posebnih ukrepov. Interesi širše javnosti morajo biti toliko močnejši, da je določen poseben ukrep dopusten. Vsak posameznik mora poskrbeti, da s svojim ravnanjem ne širi nalezljive bolezni ali kako drugače ne ogroža zdravja oziroma življenja drugih. Za širjenje nalezljive bolezni in neupoštevanje posebnih ukrepov lahko posameznik kazensko odgovarja. Kazensko pravo ima veliko vlogo pri varstvu pred nalezljivimi boleznimi, ker s svojimi funkcijami varuje temelje vrednote vsake družbe. Naš Kazenski zakonik v 177. členu opredeljuje kaznivo dejanje prenašanje nalezljivih bolezni in ga uvršča v poglavje kaznivih dejanj, ki varujejo človekovo zdravje kot kazenskopravno zavarovano dobrino. Iz pravne norme je razvidno, da gre za poškodbeno kaznivo dejanje, ker mora za dokončanje kaznivega dejanja priti do prenosa nalezljive bolezni na vsaj eno osebo. Povzročitev splošne nevarnosti iz 314. člena Kazenskega zakonika velja za temeljno ogrozitveno kaznivo dejanje, ki je uvrščeno v poglavje kaznivih dejanj zoper splošno varnost ljudi in premoženja. Prepovedana posledica, ki mora nastati, je povzročitev konkretne nevarnosti za življenje ljudi. Temeljni predpis, na katerega se sklicujejo takšna kazniva dejanja, je Zakon o nalezljivih boleznih. Zakon določa splošne in posebne ukrepe za preprečevanje nalezljivih bolezni, ki jih mora v skladu s splošno družbeno koristjo zagotavljati država. Določa nalezljive bolezni, ki ogrožajo zdravje prebivalcev Republike Slovenije. Zakon navaja več posebnih ukrepov, ki so potrebni za preprečevanje nalezljivih bolezni. Najbolj problematična ukrepa, ki določata omejitve gibanja, sta karantena in osamitev oziroma izolacija. Slovenija je 12. 3. 2020 na podlagi Zakona o nalezljivih boleznih zaradi naraščanja števila okužb s koronavirusom razglasila epidemijo. Od takrat je bilo v zelo kratkem času sprejetih veliko odlokov in odredb z zakonsko močjo. Kršiteljem ukrepov je bilo predpisanih nekaj kazni in glob, za nekatere pa kazenski zakonik predvideva celo zaporne kazni.
Keywords:kazensko pravo, kaznivo dejanje, prenašanje nalezljivih bolezni, COVID-19, epidemija, koronavirus
Year of publishing:2020
Place of performance:Maribor
Publisher:[M. Tement]
Number of pages:26 f.
Source:Maribor
UDC:343.617(043.2)
COBISS_ID:26059011 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:SIGGBVTE
Views:666
Downloads:201
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:PF
:
  
Average score:(0 votes)
Your score:Voting is allowed only for logged in users.
Share:AddThis
AddThis uses cookies that require your consent. Edit consent...

Hover the mouse pointer over a document title to show the abstract or click on the title to get all document metadata.

Licences

License:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Description:The most restrictive Creative Commons license. This only allows people to download and share the work for no commercial gain and for no other purposes.
Licensing start date:15.08.2020

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Transmission of infectious diseases in criminal law, example: COVID-19
Abstract:Who would have thought a few months ago that the world could stop for a while? At the beginning of 2020, people were shocked by the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries started to close borders, tourism and hospitality almost ceased to exist and even a large part of production had stopped. Because of the sudden and strict measures, the pandemic strongly interfered in human rights, personal freedom and social life, but among other aspects of everyday life, it has also affected the legal field. The coronavirus pandemic not only took the world by surprise, but it also revealed the fundamental shortcomings of state regulations. The Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia determines the sustainability of human rights, which can be temporarily revoked or limited. Such interference with human rights can only be temporary, during a state of emergency. In its decisions, the Constitutional Court established the principle of proportionality as one of the basic criteria of the constitutional-judicial review of special measures. The interests of the general public must be particularly strong for such emergency measures. Each individual must ensure that his or her actions do not spread an infectious disease or otherwise endanger the health or lives of others. An individual can be prosecuted for spreading a contagious disease and failing to take recommended precautions. Criminal law plays a major role in protecting the health and life of the individual, because with its functions it protects the fundamental values of every society. Our Penal Code in Article 177. lists the transmission of infectious diseases as a criminal offense, which is included in the chapter of criminal offenses that protect human health as a criminally insured good. It is clear from the legal norm that this is a criminal offense, because in order to complete the criminal offense, an infectious disease must be transmitted to at least one person. The criminal offense of causing general danger from Article 314. of the Criminal Code is considered a fundamental threatening criminal offense, which is included in the chapter of criminal offenses against the general security of people and property. The forbidden consequence that must occur is the creation of a concrete danger to human life. The basic regulation to which such crimes refer is the Infectious Diseases Act. The law sets out general and specific measures for the prevention of infectious diseases, which must be provided by the state in accordance with the general social benefit. It determines infectious diseases that endanger the health of the population of the Republic of Slovenia. The law lists several special measures needed to prevent infectious diseases. The most problematic measures that determine movement restrictions are quarantine and isolation. On 12. March 2020, Slovenia declared an epidemic on the basis of the Infectious Diseases Act due to the growing number of coronavirus infections. Since then, many decrees and orders with the force of law have been passed in a very short time. Violators of the measures were prescribed some penalties and fines, and for some the Penal Code even provides for imprisonment.
Keywords:criminal law, crime, transmission of infectious diseases, COVID-19, epidemic, coronavirus


Comments

Leave comment

You have to log in to leave a comment.

Comments (0)
0 - 0 / 0
 
There are no comments!

Back
Logos of partners University of Maribor University of Ljubljana University of Primorska University of Nova Gorica