|Opis:||The ginger family (Zingiberaceae) are plants with a distinct odour and taste known worldwide. They are often used in culinary applications as spices but they also possess numerous beneficial medical properties. They contain various components such as terpenes, flavonoids, diarylheptanoids, carbohydrates, proteins, starches, etc. In order to determine the various plant components, we have carried out analysis on 4 plants from the ginger family: lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), turmeric (Curcuma longa) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum).
Analysis involving volatile components in essential oils have been carried out using the Clevenger hydrodistillation method, in which essential oils were obtained. These were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Plants were also grinded and the extraction was carried out using ultrasound bath with methanol as a solvent. These extracts were analyzed by means of the reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (RP-HPLC-UV). The last analysis referred to components, where samples have been previously derivatized. The analysis was performed by GC-MS.
We found out that monoterpenes are predominant in the essential oils of lesser galangal and cardamom, while sesquiterpenes are predominant in the essential oils of ginger and turmeric. The main components of essential oil are 1,8-cineol for lesser galangal, α-zingiberene for ginger, β-turmerone, ar-turmerone and ar-curcumene for turmeric and α-terpinyl acetate and 1,8-cineol for cardamom.
With the method RP-HPLC-UV we have determined components of lesser galangal, where diarylheptanoids and flavonoids like galangin were predominant. The components of ginger are gingerols, where 6-gingerol was predominant, and shogaols. The components of turmeric are curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bis-demethoxycurcumin), ar-turmerone, curlone and α-turmerone.
Analysis of derivatized samples with GC-MS revealed presence of monosaccharides.
In samples of essential oils volatile compounds were predominant, while other components were part of non-volatile components.|