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Title:Situacijska prevencija nezakonite trgovine z električnimi in elektronskimi odpadki : doktorska disertacija
Authors:Rožnik, Andreja (Author)
Meško, Gorazd (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf DOK_Roznik_Andreja_2021.pdf (4,66 MB)
MD5: A546E834381AF3DE23019213571FBAAC
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Dissertation (m)
Typology:2.08 - Doctoral Dissertation
Organization:FVV - Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security
Abstract:Termin električni in elektronski odpadek oziroma e-odpadek opisuje stvari/izdelke, ki v celoti predstavljajo opremo električnega ali elektronskega izvora, ali pa izdelek vsebuje zgolj en del električnega, ali elektronskega izvora, ki ga lastnik zavrže kot odpadek, brez namere po nadaljnji uporabi. Zaradi hitrega razvoja industrije in informacijske tehnologije ter čedalje večje potrošnje, so e-odpadki postali eden izmed najhitreje rastočih tokov odpadkov. E-odpadki vsebujejo tako vredne elemente (npr. zlato, platina, srebro) kot strupene elemente (npr. kadmij, živo srebro in krom), zato je njihovo razstavljanje in recikliranje na okolju varen način drago. Raziskovalci so ugotovili, da je več kot 80 odstotkov vseh zavrženih e-odpadkov nezakonito poslanih iz razvitih držav v države v razvoju, kjer e-odpadke nezakonito razstavijo delavci v neformalnem sektorju. Slednji z namenom zaslužka od prodaje vrednih elementov, ki jih pridobijo z neustreznim razstavljanjem e-odpadkov, onesnažujejo okolje ter ogrožajo zdravje sebe in drugih ljudi. Razvite države so z namenom preprečevanja nezakonitega trgovanja in pošiljanja e-odpadkov v države v razvoju, zaostrile zakonodajo, vendar ni bilo večjega učinka. Z namenom raziskovanja problematike nezakonitega trgovanja in pošiljanja e-odpadkov smo preučili in predlagali uporabo ukrepov Clarkovega modela situacijskega preprečevanja kriminalitete, s katerimi bi zniževali nezakonito trgovanje z e-odpadki. Situacijska prevencija raziskuje možnosti za zniževanje priložnosti za storitev posamezne vrste kaznivega dejanja z večanjem tveganja za storitev kaznivega dejanja in hkrati z zniževanjem nagrad. V doktorski disertaciji smo v teoretičnem delu predstavili področje e-odpadkov (terminologija, sestava, zdravstveni in okoljski ter družbeni vplivi e-odpadkov, mednarodna in nacionalna pravna ureditev ter dosedanje ugotovitve) in teorijo situacijskega preprečevanja kriminalitete (pomen, ukrepi in dosedanje ugotovitve). V praktičnem delu smo z uporabo mešanih metod naredili: 1) študijo zaznanih primerov čezmejnih (ne)zakonitih pošiljk e-odpadkov, 2) analizo kaznovalne politike na področju e-odpadkov v Sloveniji, 3) analizo statističnih podatkov ter 4) opravili delno strukturirane intervjuje z različnimi predstavniki (to so: uradni organi, nosilci shem za ravnanje z e-odpadki ter "free riderji" in posamezniki, ki se nezakonito ukvarjajo z razstavljanjem e-odpadkov). »Free riderje« smo povprašali o njihovem ravnanju z e-odpadki, saj ti nimajo podpisane pogodbe za ravnanje z e-odpadki z enim od nosilcev shem za ravnanje z e-odpadki ter predstavljajo sivi trg. Rezultati intervjujev so pokazali, da je v Sloveniji nezakonito trgovanje in pošiljanje e-odpadkov v druge države malo verjetno. Izpostavljena je bila problematika odvzemanje vrednih kovin iz e-odpadkov, ki jih posamezniki prodajo slovenskim podjetjem, katera odkupujejo tovrstne kovine. »Free riderji« so podali zelo površinske odzive in odgovorili, da ustrezno ravnajo z e-odpadki. Kaznovalna politika na področju e-odpadkov je zelo redka. Namreč težko je dokazljiva neposredna onesnaženost okolja ali resno ogrožanje človekovega zdravja, ki neposredno izvira iz neustreznega ravnanja z e-odpadkom ali z nezakonitim pošiljanjem e-odpadkov. Ugotovitve iz praktičnega dela so bile podlaga za prilagajanje ukrepov situacijskega preprečevanja kriminalitete. Za slovenski prostor so uporabni ukrepi: ozaveščanje potrošnikov, redno izvajanje nadzora nad akterji, ki ravnajo z e-odpadki, izobraževanje kadra državnih organov, zagotovitev ustrezno varovanih prostorov za zbiranje in skladiščenje e-odpadkov, poenotenje uradnih evidenc prijavljenih proizvajalcev e-opreme, znižanje cene in večja dostopnost nadomestnih delov za nedelujočo/pokvarjeno e-opremo, znižanje odkupne vrednosti za vredne kovine iz e-odpadkov z namenom odvračanja nezakonitega razstavljanja e-odpadkov.
Keywords:električni odpadki, elektronski odpadki, e-odpadki, nezakonito trgovanje, kriminaliteta, ekološka kriminaliteta, situacijsko preprečevanje, situacijski preventivni ukrepi, doktorske disertacije
Year of publishing:2020
Year of performance:2020
Place of performance:Ljubljana
Publisher:[A. Rožnik]
Number of pages:XII, 461 str., [60] str. pril.
Source:Ljubljana
UDC:343.9:[628.4.02+628.4.04](043.3)
COBISS_ID:47840003 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:2VK8PK1F
Views:225
Downloads:36
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Situational prevention of illegal electrical and electronic waste trading
Abstract:Electrical and electronic waste or e-waste is a term used to describe or to cover all items of electrical and electronic equipment and its parts, which have been discarded by its owner as waste without the intent of re-use. Due to the rapid development of the industry and information technology, as also increasing consumption, e-waste became one of the fastest growing waste streams. E-waste consists of valuable components and also contains non-negligible amounts of hazardous elements and materials and is thus expensive to treat in an environmentally sound matter. Researchers have discovered that more than 80 percent of all discarded e-waste is illegally shipped from developed countries to developing countries, where is e-waste recycled by informal workers. Inadequate dismantling of e-waste, for the purpose of gaining money by selling valuable elements, is damaging to the environment and to human health. By tightening the legislation, developed countries wanted to prevent the illegal trade and shipments of e-waste, but the desired effect did not occur. In order to research the issue of illegal trade and shipment of e-waste, we examined and proposed the most appropriate preventivon techinques of Clarke’s situational prevention theory to curb the illegal e-waste trade. Situational crime prevention seeks to reduce the opportunities for specific crime by increasing the associated risks and difficulties and reducing the rewards. In the doctoral dissertation, in the theoretical part, we presented e-waste (terminology, the composition, health, environmental and economic impacts of e-waste, the international and national legal regulation of e-waste and current findings), the situational crime prevention theory (the meaning, the situational crime prevention techniques and current findings). In the empirical part, we used mixed methods to: 1) conduct a case study of detected (il)legal e-waste shipment cases; 2) analyse Slovenian penal policy for e-waste cases, 3) analyse the statistical data and 4) conduct a partially structured interview with three groups (enforcement authority; e-waste management schemes; individuals who illegally engage in e-waste and “free riders”). We asked "free riders" (who are producers or distributors of electrical and electronic equipment (e-equipment), but do not have a contract with one of management schemes for e-waste) about their e-waste management. The results of the interviews showed that illegal management and export of e-waste in Slovenia remain almost unobserved. More problematic is the the theft of valuable materials and metals from e-waste by individual people and selling on to Slovenian companies which purchase the valuable and precious metals. »Free riders« gave superficial responses, and all of them affirmed that they handled e-waste properly.The penal policy for e-waste is very rare. Meaning, it is very hard to prove the pollution and endangered of human health, which are direct result of improper handling of e-waste or illegal shipment of e-waste. The findings from the empirical work formed the basis for adapting the techniques of the situational crime prevention model. For Slovenia, these situational crime prevention techniques are suitable as follows: raising consumer awareness; regular surveillance of enforcement authorities over actors dealing with e-waste; training of and additional employment in the staff of enforcement authorities; formation of a special group for controlling cross-border shipments of (e-)waste; ensuring appropriate, secure premises for collection and storage of e-waste; unification of the official database for producers/manufacturers and distributors of e-equipment; creation of two e-waste management schemes; reduction in prices for and greater availability of spare parts for non-functioning or defective e-equipment; reduction in purchase value for the valuable metals that are extracted from e-waste in order to deter illegal dismantling of e-waste.
Keywords:electrical and electronic waste, e-waste, illegal trade and transnational shipment of e-waste, situational crime prevention, situational crime prevention techniques


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