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Title:Oblikovanje modela obravnave starejših pri izvajanju dnevnih aktivnosti v domačem okolju
Authors:Galof, Katarina (Author)
Balantič, Zvonko (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Žnidaršič, Anja (Co-mentor)
Files:.pdf DOK_Galof_Katarina_2020.pdf (4,24 MB)
MD5: 40988BB9E60C1FF204AA7ABF3A4B836A
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Doctoral dissertation (mb31)
Typology:2.08 - Doctoral Dissertation
Organization:FOV - Faculty of Organizational Sciences in Kranj
Abstract:Staranje in dolgotrajna oskrba predstavljata del našega vsakdana. Staranje je namreč sestavni del življenjskega ciklusa, v katerega na ravni celotnega organizma vstopamo že ob rojstvu. Bolezen in starost lahko zelo hitro povzročita spremembe na področju zdravstvenega stanja. Če nas bolezen dohiti nepripravljene na področju seznanjenosti z možnostmi, ki jih nudi lokalno okolje na področju pomoči za zadovoljevanje osnovnih življenjskih potreb v obdobju starosti, lahko zaradi trenutnega nepoznavanja možnih rešitev odreagiramo s časovno, socialno ali materialno stisko. Z uporabljenim anketnim vprašalnikom smo želeli pridobiti podatke o samostojnem funkcioniranju starejših v domačem okolju pri izvajanju vsakodnevnih aktivnosti. Zanimalo nas je, koliko pomoči za ožje in širše dnevne aktivnosti potrebujejo, ali pri izvedbi aktivnosti uporabljajo različne pripomočke in na kakšen način so jih pridobili. Ker so v obstoječem sistemu zdravstvenega in socialnega varstva starejšim v domačem okolju na voljo obiski patronažne službe in socialne oskrbovalke, nas je zanimalo, kdo starejše obiskuje z namenom nudenja pomoči pri izvajanju vsakodnevnih aktivnosti in katerega izmed deležnikov bi izbrali za pomoč pri izvedbi vsakodnevnih aktivnosti, če bi jo potrebovali. Za sodelovanje pri raziskavi smo prosili članice Združenja društev upokojencev Slovenije in k raziskavi povabili njihove člane. Vključitveni kriteriji članov društev upokojencev Slovenije, ki so sodelovali v raziskavi, so bili: starost nad 65 let, bivanje doma in pripravljenost za prostovoljno sodelovanje. Za potrebe raziskave smo oblikovali pet raziskovalnih hipotez. Za njihovo preverjanje smo predvideli uporabo parametričnih testov. Izkazalo se je, da smo v veliko primerih dobili nenormalno porazdeljene podatke, kar smo nato upoštevali pri izbiri testov za potrjevanje hipotez. S statistično obdelavo podatkov smo ugotovili, da so starejši bolj samostojni pri izvajanju ožjih dnevnih aktivnosti (kopanje, oblačenje, uporaba stranišča, premeščanje, kontinenca, hranjenje, zunanji videz, hoja) in da pri izvedbi širših dnevnih aktivnosti (uporaba telefona, nakupovanje, priprava obroka, gospodinjenje, pranje perila, mobilnost po soseski, uporaba zdravil) potrebujejo več pomoči. Največ pomoči pri izvedbi dnevnih aktivnosti jim nudijo svojci in prijatelji. Dodatni viri oblike pomoči pri izvedbi dnevnih aktivnosti so formalni (socialne oskrbovalke) in neformalni (sorodniki in prijatelji) izvajalci. Med medicinskimi pripomočki pogosto uporabljajo očala za branje in podaljšano žlico za obuvanje čevljev. Izjemno pomembno mesto med pripomočki ima uporaba informacijsko-komunikacijske tehnologije v obliki mobilnega telefona. Prilagajanje bivalnega okolja je področje, ki so ga starejši v določenih primerih že usvojili oziroma so bili z enostavnimi prilagoditvami seznanjeni v preventivnih programih ali prek najrazličnejših medijev. Z vidika prilagajanja domačega okolja je bistveno razmišljanje o primernosti urejanja bivalnih površin v času prenove oziroma pred upokojitvijo, ko finančna sredstva še dopuščajo tovrstna vlaganja in so spremembe še sprejemljive. Rezultati raziskave predstavljajo ključno izhodišče za oblikovanje nabora storitev in njihovih vsebin za izvajalce storitev dolgotrajne oskrbe. Bili so naše izhodišče za oblikovanje spiralnega modela dolgotrajne oskrbe. Vodili so nas v nadaljnje raziskovanje, kjer smo z generiranjem in identifikacijo potreb starejših po delovnoterapevtskih storitvah s pomočjo spiralnega modela oblikovali nabor delovnoterapevtskih storitev za področje dolgotrajne oskrbe. Oblikovani spiralni model dolgotrajne oskrbe temelji na vključevanju tako formalnih kot neformalnih deležnikov v sistem nudenja in izvajanja storitev za potrebe uporabnikov dolgotrajne oskrbe. Z aplikacijo tovrstnega interdisciplinarnega načina obravnave starejših jim bomo omočili kakovostno preživljanje jeseni življenja v domačem okolju na način, ki so si ga izbrali sami.
Keywords:starostnik, dnevne aktivnosti, domače bivalno okolje, spiralni model, delovnoterapevtski standard
Year of publishing:2020
Source:Maribor
COBISS_ID:22750723 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:GYNFIN7H
Views:512
Downloads:104
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Categories:FOV
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Licences

License:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Description:The most restrictive Creative Commons license. This only allows people to download and share the work for no commercial gain and for no other purposes.
Licensing start date:06.03.2020

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Developing a model of health care management of the elderly in performance of daily activities in home environment
Abstract:Ageing and long-term care are a part of our everyday life. Ageing is a constituent part of a life cycle which we enter on the level of entire organism at our birth. Illness and old age can cause changes in our health condition. If we are ill and we are not informed about the possibilities which are offered by the local environment regarding the help at satisfying our basic life needs, we can react with time, social or material distress because we cannot see the solution at that moment. With the questionnaire we wanted to gain information about independent functioning of elderly people in their home environment at performing narrow and broad daily activities. We were interested in how much help they need with that, whether they use any aids and how they gained them. In current system of health and social care, the elderly in home environment can get visits from home care service and social care providers, so we were interested in who visits the elderly, helps them at performing daily activities and whom they would choose to help them at performing daily activities if the help was needed. We asked the members of Slovene Federation of Pensioners’ Associations to participate in the survey. Inclusion criteria of the members Slovene pensioners’ associations who participated in the survey, were the age higher than 65 years, living at home and readiness for voluntary participation. For the purposes of the survey, five research hypotheses were formed. In order to check them we decided to use parametric tests. It turned out that in many cases we got the abnormal distribution of data, which we then considered at the choice of tests for confirming the hypotheses. With statistical treatment of data, we found out that elderly people are more independent at performing activities of daily living (bathing, dressing, toileting, transferring, continence, feeding, grooming, walking) that at performing instrumental activities of daily living (uses the phone, shopping, cooking, housework, laundry, driving, managing medications) where they need more help. They receive most help at performing activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living from their relatives and friends. Additional sources of help at performing activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living are formal (social care providers) and informal providers of help (relatives and friends). Among medical aids they often use glasses for reading and long shoe horns to put shoes on. Very important is the use of communication-information technology in the form of a mobile phone. Adaptation of living environment is an area that in some cases elderly have already learnt about or got familiar with simple adjustments in preventive programs or through wide variety of media. From the standpoint of adjusting home environment, it is essential to think about suitability of arranging living areas at the time of renovation or before retirement when financial means still allow such investments and changes are still acceptable. The research outcomes are the most important basis to form a set of services and their contents for providers of long-term care. They were our basis for forming the spiral model of long-term care. They led us to further research. By finding out the needs of elderly people for occupational therapy service, we formed with the help of a spiral model a set of occupational therapy services for the long-term care. The created spiral model of long-term care is based on including formal as well as informal providers into the system of offering and performing services for users of long-term care. With application of such interdisciplinary way of treating the elderly, we will enable them to spend their old age in their homes in the way they themselves have chosen.
Keywords:elderly, daily activities, home environment, spiral model, occupational therapy standards


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