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Title:NICHD protokol intervjuvanja otrok : diplomsko delo univerzitetnega študijskega programa Varstvoslovje
Authors:Josipović, Tamara (Author)
Areh, Igor (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UN_Josipovic_Tamara_2020.pdf (710,42 KB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:FVV - Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security
Abstract:Ne zgolj odrasli, tudi otroci so pomemben faktor v procesu preiskovanja določenih kaznivih dejanj, bodisi v vlogi priče ali celo v vlogi žrtve. Njihovo pričanje že od nekdaj velja za vprašljivo, saj so tretirani kot nemočna bitja, ki poleg svojega okolja in dogodkov, ki se jim pripetijo, drugače zaznavajo in dojemajo tudi različne informacije, ki pridejo do njih. Diplomska naloga se osredotoča na spolno zlorabljene otroke, ki so po travmatičnem dogodku postavljeni pred preiskovalca, čigar naloga je zlorabo odkriti ter, kar se da iskreno in gotovo, pojasniti, kaj se je otroku zgodilo. Ker se velikokrat zgodi, da so otroci edini razpoložljivi vir informacij, je vitalnega pomena predvsem to, da preiskovalec izbere pravilen pristop, s katerim bo skušal od otroka pridobiti čim več zanesljivih in natančnih informacij. Za svoje delo mora biti ustrezno usposobljen, saj lahko le tako doseže, da ne prihaja do lažnih oziroma napačnih obtožb. Pred samim začetkom mora biti seznanjen z otrokovim razvojem, zato diplomsko delo najprej obravnava otrokovo mišljenje, govor, funkcijo spomina ter zmožnost uporabe lažnih izjav. Šele nato lahko preiskovalec preide na določeno tehniko zasliševanja, s katero poskuša pridobiti želene informacije. Obstaja več različnih tehnik opravljanja razgovora z otroki. Nekatere izmed najbolj znanih in pogosto uporabljanih so tehnika anatomskih lutk, kognitivni intervju, za obtožbe slepi intervju, pregled dotikanja, obširna forenzična ocena ter NICHD protokol, ki je v diplomskem delu tudi podrobneje opisan. Gre za tehniko, ki se v Sloveniji sicer še ne uporablja, vendar je drugod znana kot ena najbolj učinkovitih in zanesljivih metod preiskovanja. Za razliko od drugih tehnik, je ta sestavljena iz dveh faz. V prvi je glavnega pomena vzpostavitev odnosa z otrokom ter omogočanje le-temu, da se v okolju, v katerem pogovor poteka, počuti kar se da sproščeno in domače. Šele kasneje, v drugi fazi, preiskovalec pogovor napelje na domnevno zlorabo ter zastavlja bolj konkretna vprašanja. Otrokovi odgovori so zaradi odprtih in manj sugestibilnih vprašanj natančnejši ter zanesljivejši, s čimer se delež preiskanih primerov vztrajno zvišuje.
Keywords:diplomske naloge, otroci, spolna zloraba, intervju, NICHD protokol, verodostojnost izjav
Year of publishing:2020
Year of performance:2020
Place of performance:Ljubljana
Publisher:[T. Josipović]
Number of pages:VIII, 52 str.
Source:Ljubljana
UDC:159.9:340.6(043.2)
COBISS_ID:3861226 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:CZKDR4KH
Views:99
Downloads:14
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:FVV
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Nichd protocol for interviewing children
Abstract:Not only adults, but children as well are an important factor in the process of crime investigation, whether as witnesses or even as victims. Due to being treated as helpless human beings, who perceive and comprehend their environment, happenings and various information differently, their testimony has, from time immemorial, been considered questionable. Diploma focuses on sexually abused children, who are, after their traumatic experience, to meet an investigator, whose task is to find out if children were in fact abused and then as honestly and certainly as possible explain what happened to a certain child. As it often occurs that children are the only available source of information, it is vital that the investigator chooses the right approach in order to be able to get reliable and accurate information from a child. Moreover, he or she must be properly qualified for this kind of work to avoid false accusations of sexual abuse. Before the investigation process can start, the investigator must also be familiar with the child’s development, therefore the diploma deals with children’s thinking, speech, memory and the ability to use false statements first. Only then can the investigator continue with an interrogation technique, which helps him or her to learn about the wanted information. There are several different techniques for interviewing children, some of them being anatomically detailed dolls, cognitive interview, allegation blind interview, touch survey, extended forensic evaluation model and NICHD protocol, the latter described in more detail. It is a technique, which is not yet used in Slovenia, but is otherwise known as one of the most effective and reliable methods of investigation. Unlike others, this technique consists of two phases. In the first one the investigator bonds with the child and tries to create a positive atmosphere for the child to feel relaxed and secure. Only later, in the second phase, the investigator moves on to the alleged abuse and starts asking more concrete questions. Because of open and less suggestive questions, the children’s answers turn out to be more accurate and reliable, which results in persistent rise in the percentage of successful investigations.
Keywords:children, sexual abuse, interview, NICHD protocol, credibility of statements


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