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Title:Pridobitev in izguba državljanstva v naslednicah bivše SFRJ : magistrsko delo
Authors:Gole, Emanuel (Author)
Tratnik, Matjaž (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf MAG_Gole_Emanuel_2019.pdf (622,80 KB)
MD5: 0B57B0F549352692631DC6A0AAB84E05
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Pojem državljanstva odpira mnoga vprašanja v politiki in družbi, saj je eden ključnih gradnikov pravne ureditve vsake države. Skupno vsem teorijam o državljanstvu je spoznanje, da je državljanstvo trajna pravna vez med posameznikom in državo. Gre torej za odnos posameznika napram državi, ki pa ne vključuje razmerja do ostalih posameznikov. Državljanstvo gre razumeti tudi kot pravni status, iz česar izhaja pripadnost državljana državi, katere državljanstvo ima. Z vidika pravne varnosti je izrednega pomena, da so države samostojne pri urejanju državljanstva in skladno z načelom suverenosti same določajo načine in pogoje pridobitve in izgube državljanstva na njihovem ozemlju, vendar pa morajo upoštevati tudi pravila mednarodnega prava in ukrepe drugih držav. Posebne težave pri urejanju državljanstva se lahko pojavijo pri sukcesiji, saj gre v tem primeru za državno nasledstvo, pri katerem država naslednica vstopi v pravna razmerja države predhodnice. Država naslednica mora nato na novo, s svojim pravom urediti vsa razmerja in postopke pridobitve in izgube državljanstva, saj lahko v nasprotnem primeru osebe, ki so živele na ozemlju države predhodnice, ostanejo brez državljanstva. Pri vseh oblikah državnega nasledstva pa gre hkrati tudi za ozemeljske spremembe, zato se v primeru cesije, priključitve, združitve, odcepitve ali razpada neke države nujno spremenijo tudi državne meje. Eden izmed najodmevnejših primerov razpada, je razpad Socialistične federativne republike Jugoslavije (v nadaljevanju SFRJ) na šest samostojnih republik. Začel se je, ko je Slovenija 25. junija 1991 razglasila svojo neodvisnost. Sloveniji so kronološko sledile še Hrvaška, Makedonija, Bosna in Hercegovina in kot zadnja Zvezna republika Jugoslavija, ki je 27. aprila 1992 sprejela novo ustavo. Zvezna republika Jugoslavija je kot država prenehala obstajati leta 2003, ko sta Srbija in Črna gora sprejeli novo ustavo in se preimenovali v Državno skupnost Srbije in Črne gore. Z razpadom nekdanje skupne države, so v vseh novonastalih republikah morali steči postopki sprejemanja zakonodaje, ki je na novo uredila pogoje in načine pridobitve in izgube državljanstva v novonastalih državah. Vendar pa je po podrobni preučitvi zakonodaj moč opaziti, da je večina držav kot temelj za urejanje vprašanja državljanstva prevzela ureditev iz Zakona o državljanstvu Socialistične federativne republike Jugoslavije iz leta 1976. Ta zakon je določal, da se državljanstvo SFRJ po rodu, z rojstvom na območju SFRJ, z naturalizacijo in po mednarodni pogodbi, medtem ko je za načine izgube državljanstva SFRJ predvideval odpust, odvzem, odrek in prenehanje po mednarodni pogodbi. Tako Republika Slovenija, kot Republika Hrvaška in Republika Srbija predvidevajo pridobitev državljanstva po rodu, z rojstvom na območju države, z naturalizacijo in po mednarodni pogodbi. Sami pogoji pridobitve državljanstva na omenjene načine se med sabo v primerjavi z Zakonom o državljanstvu Socialistične federativne republike Jugoslavije bistveno ne razlikujejo, prav tako ni moč opaziti velikih odstopanj v primerjavi ureditev med obravnavanimi tremi državami, seveda pa zakonodaje med sabo niso popolnoma enake, ampak določene pogoje za pridobitev državljanstva vsaka država ureja po svoje. V primeru izgube državljanstva, vse tri obravnavane države omogočajo izgubo z odpustom, odrekom in po mednarodni pogodbi, medtem ko odvzem državljanstva predvideva le Republika Slovenija.
Keywords:Državljanstvo, sukcesija, razpad SFRJ, pridobitev in izguba državljanstva v naslednicah bivše SFRJ.
Year of publishing:2019
Place of performance:[Maribor
Publisher:E. Gole]
Number of pages:III, 44 f.
Source:Maribor
UDC:347.152(043.3)
COBISS_ID:5827115 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:BQO8MFFW
Views:474
Downloads:102
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Licences

License:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Description:The most restrictive Creative Commons license. This only allows people to download and share the work for no commercial gain and for no other purposes.
Licensing start date:12.12.2019

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Acqusition and loss of citizenship in the successors of the former SFRY
Abstract:The concept of citizenship raises many questions in politics and society, as it is one of the key building blocks of the rule of law of every country. Common to all citizenship theories is the realization, that citizenship is a lasting legal bond between the individual and the state. It is, therefore, an attitude of an individual towards the state, which does not include relations with other individuals. Citizenship should also be understood as a legal status, which gives rise to the nationality of the citizen of the country of his nationality. From the point of view of legal certainty, it is important that states are autonomous in regulating citizenship and, in accordance with the principle of sovereignty, determine themselves they determine the methods and conditions for the acquisition and loss of citizenship in its territory by themselves, however, they must also comply with the rules of international law and the actions of other countries. Specific difficulties in regulating nationality may arise in succession. In this case, it is a national succession in which the successor state enters into the legal relations of the predecessor country. The successor country must then redefine all relations and procedures for the acquisition and loss of citizenship, otherwise, persons who lived in the territory of the predecessor country may remain stateless. All forms of state succession are also territorial changes, so in the event of a cession, annexation, merger, secession or disintegration of a country, the boundaries of the state necessarily change. One of the most striking examples of the disintegration of a country is the disintegration of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia into six independent republics. It started when Slovenia declared independence on June 25, 1991. Slovenia was chronologically followed by Croatia, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and as the last Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which adopted a new constitution on April 27, 1992. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ceased to exist in 2003, when Serbia and Montenegro adopted a new constitution and renamed themselves into the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. With the disintegration of the former common state, all the new republics had to adopt legislative procedures, which have redefined the conditions and methods of acquiring and losing citizenship in new countries. However, after a careful examination of the legislation, it can be observed, that most countries as the basis for regulating the issue of citizenship took over the regulation from the Citizenship Act of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1976. This law stipulated that citizenship of the SFRY was acquired by descent, by birth in the territory of SFRY, by naturalisation and by operation of international agreement, while the methods of losing SFRY citizenship were release, revocation, renunciation and termination by operation of international agreement. Republic of Slovenia, the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Serbia envisage the acquisition of citizenship by descent, by birth in the territory of the country, by naturalisation and by operation of international agreement. The conditions for acquisition of citizenship are not significantly different from the Citizenship Act of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1976, there is also no significant difference between the regulations among the three countries under consideration, but of course the laws are not exactly the same, so each country has its own conditions for acquisition of citizenship. In case of loss of citizenship, all three countries under consideration allow for the loss of citizenship through release, renunciation, and termination by operation of international agreement, while loss of the citizenship by revocation regulates only the Republic of Slovenia.
Keywords:Citizenship, state succession, disintegration of the SFRY, acquisition and loss of citizenship in the successors of the former SFRY.


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