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Izpis gradiva

Naslov:Dedne pogodbe grofov Celjskih : diplomsko delo
Avtorji:Pogačnik, Lea (Avtor)
Holcman, Borut (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Datoteke:.pdf UN_Pogacnik_Lea_2019.pdf (944,76 KB)
MD5: DBDD2C68869D9912E4EB7C2D81EAFB6F
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Diplomsko delo/naloga (mb11)
Tipologija:2.11 - Diplomsko delo
Organizacija:PF - Pravna fakulteta
Opis:Družbena ureditev in gospodarstvo sta v srednjem veku temeljila na zemlji. Ker so imeli osrednji deli nemške dežele zemljo že razdeljeno, je bila zemlja zanimiva predvsem na jugovzhodu države. Imenovala se je kronska zemlja, saj jo je cesar z namenom pridobivanja zvestobe tamkajšnjega plemstva in krepitve obrambe na meji podeljeval plemstvu in cerkvi. Kot rezultat se je oblikoval družbeni in gospodarski sistem, imenovan fevdalizem. Nastajati so začela zemljiška gospostva, zemlja pa je plemstvu dajala status in ugled. Žovneški so imeli status svobodnih gospodov (nobiles), kar je zanje pomenilo, da so se podrejali samo vladarju. V tistem obdobju je bil cilj vsake plemiške rodbine združiti čim več posesti in ustvariti lasten teritorij, na katerem bi si pravno, politično in vojaško podredili ostalo plemstvo. Ko so Žovneški v drugi polovici 13. stoletja prvič posegli v medplemiške boje, so to naredili preudarno, saj so podprli Habsburžane in si tako pridobili pomembnega zaveznika. Leta 1308 je Ulrik Žovneški Frideriku Habsburškemu izročil svoje gradove in jih prejel nazaj v fevd. To dejanje je sicer pomenilo izgubo temelja za naziv svobodnih gospodov in premik navzdol po družbeni lestvici, saj so Žovneški s tem postali deželnoknežji ministeriali. Vseeno pa je izročitev še okrepila medsebojno vez s Habsburžani, po vrhu vsega pa je Ulrik posesti obdržal. Leto 1332 je bilo za Žovneške pomembno saj je umrl zadnji Vovbrški grof, zato so se podali v boj za njihovo dediščino, s središčem v Celju. Naslednji prelomni dogodek je sledil leta 1341 s povzdigo cesarja Ludvika Bavarskega, s katero so dobili naziv državni grofje Celjski. Temu je sledila ponovna povzdiga Karla IV. Luksemburškega. Poroka in z njo povezano dedovanje je bila le ena izmed strategij za pridobivanje ozemelj, spori za dediščino pa so navadno vodili v vojaške spopade. Ker so se Celjski grofje zavedali, da vsaka delitev rodbinske posesti pomeni tudi njeno slabitev, so z dednimi pogodbami ohranjali celotno posest v rokah rodbine tako, da se z ženitvami ni delila, pomembne listine pa so podpisovali vsi skupaj. Med vsemi ženitvami je bila najpomembnejša poroka Barbare, najmlajše hčere Hermana II. Njo je oče namreč poročil s Sigismundom, sinom rimskega cesarja in češkega kralja Karla Luksemburškega. Sigismund je leta 1410 postal rimsko-nemški cesar, Barbara pa je bila v Pragi leta 1437 kronana za češko kraljico. Leto pred tem, novembra 1436, je Sigismund Celjske grofe povzdignil v državne kneze. Ta povzdiga je postala jabolko spora med Celjskimi in Habsburžani, nesoglasja pa so se leta 1443 končala s sklenjeno poravnavo. Celjski so se namreč odpovedali lastni kneževini, Friderik III. Habsburški pa jim je priznal knežji naslov. Del poravnave je bila tudi obojestranska dedna pogodba Celjskih s Habsburžani, po kateri rodbina, ki izumre prva (ostane brez moških potomcev), drugi prepusti vsa svoja ozemlja. Sprva je bilo težko govoriti o oporočni sposobnosti, saj je zemljiški gospod vedno sodeloval pri prenosu premoženja iz zapustnika na prejemnika. Oblika oporoke sprva ni bila izrecno določena. Oporočno dedovanje se je najverjetneje uveljavilo v 13. stoletju, dedovanje po zakonu v primeru, ko zapustnik ni napravil veljavne oporoke, pa se je najverjetneje uveljavilo šele v visokem srednjem veku, pri čemer so bili prvi upravičenci zapustnikovi najbližji krvni sorodniki. Ženske so se navadno odrekle premoženju v korist moških potomcev rodbine. Glavno načelo pri razpolaganju s podedovanim premoženjem je bila zaščita obstoja rodbinskega premoženja. Dedovanje fevdov je bilo omejeno na krvno sorodstvo, tako da ga vdova ni mogla dedovati, ampak ga je lahko le uživala do smrti; to je veljalo še v 14. stoletju. Nedeljivost premoženja so zagotavljali tudi tako, da je bilo treba za odsvojitev premoženja pridobiti soglasje sorodnikov. Izjema so bile naklonitve cerkvi, za katere soglasje sorodnikov ni bilo potrebno.
Ključne besede:Celjski grofje, fevdalizem, plemstvo, dedna pogodba, ženitna pogodba, obojestranska dedna pogodba Celjskih s Habsburžani, oporočno dedovanje.
Leto izida:2019
Kraj izvedbe:Maribor
Založnik:[L. Pogačnik]
Št. strani:33 f.
Izvor:Maribor
UDK:347.6:929(043.2)
COBISS_ID:5816107 Novo okno
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:IOZJ67OU
Število ogledov:740
Število prenosov:75
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Področja:PF
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Licence

Licenca:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, Creative Commons Priznanje avtorstva-Nekomercialno-Brez predelav 4.0 Mednarodna
Povezava:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.sl
Opis:Najbolj omejujoča licenca Creative Commons. Uporabniki lahko prenesejo in delijo delo v nekomercialne namene in ga ne smejo uporabiti za nobene druge namene.
Začetek licenciranja:25.09.2019

Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Hereditary contracts of Celje counts
Opis:Social order and the economy in the middle ages were based on the land. As the central German provinces already had land, this was especially interesting on the south east of the country. It was called crown land, mainly because the emperor was giving it away to aristocracy and the church in exchange for military service and loyalty. As a result - social system called feudalism was born. An era of Lordship began, as the land was a sign of higher status and prestige. Lords of Sanneck had status of nobiles, which meant they only had to answer to the emperor. At that time, the goal of each aristocratic family was to combine as much land as possible and create its own territory, on which they would then politically and legally subordinate other nobility. When in the other half of the 13th century, they first involved themselves in internoble struggles, they did it wisely, as they supported Habsburg monarchy and got an important ally. In year 1308, Ulrih Žovneški gave all his castles to Friderik Habsburški, who then gave it back to Ulrih to feud. Even though this meant the Lords of Sanneck lost the status of nobiles, and a step down on the social ladder, the bond between the Lords of Sanneck and Austrian Habsburgs undoubtedly strengthened as a result. Year 1332 marks the death of the last Vovbrški count. This was of significant importance to the Lords of Sanneck and they immediately went into battle for their inheritance. The next significant event followed in year 1341, when Ludwig Bavarian became emperor and with which they got the title Counts of Celje. Marriage and the heirship was one of the strategies to obtain land, but the disputes regarding heritage usually resulted in military battle. As the Counts of Celje knew, that every division of the land meant weakening, they made sure that with marriage, the married party got no right to the heritage - they did so with so called heritage contracts. Apart from that, they made sure that all important decisions regarding the whole family was always made together and they all signed all important documents. Of all marriages, the most important one was marriage of Barbara, the youngest daughter of Herman II. She was married to Sigismund, son of the roman emperor and Czech king Karl Luxembourg. In year 1410, Sigismund became Roman-German emperor and Barbara was in year 1443 crowned as Czech queen. A year prior to that, in November 1436, Sigismund elevated the counts of Celje to the rank of Princes of the Holy Roman empire. This promotion was the apple of discord between the Counts of Celje and Austrian Habsburgs, which was ended in 1443 by a settlement. The Counts of Celje gave up their own princedom, while Friderik III. Habsburški allowed them to use Princely title. Part of the settlement was also an agreement between both, that the family which dies first, leaves all heritage to the other. Landlords always participated at transfer of an inheritance from testator to recipient so it is hard to say there was a testamentary ability at first. The form of the testament was also not explicitly specified. Testamentary inheritance was most likely established in 13th century, while the intestate succession was established in high Middle Ages. Intestate succession was in case that decedent didn't left valid testament and the qualified were his closest relatives. Women often gave up their inheritance in the benefit of male descendants of the family. The main principle of inherited property, was to mantain the existence of it within the family. In the feudalism, the widow could only enjoy the inheritance until death, because the succession was only for relatives by blood. This lasted until 14th century. The indivisibility of the property was also ensured through consensus of the relatives, who expected to get the inheritance. The only exception where the consensus was not needed, was when the part of the inheritance was given to the church.
Ključne besede:Counts of Celje, feusalism, nobility, heritage contracts, marriage contracts, inheritance agreement between Counts of Celje and Habsburgs, testamentary inheritance.


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