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Title:Populacijska dinamika bele štorklje Ciconia ciconia v Sloveniji med letoma 1999 in 2018 ter problematika gnezdenja na srednje napetostnih daljnovodnih drogovih
Authors:Gajšek, Urša (Author)
Denac, Damijan (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf MAG_Gajsek_Ursa_2019.pdf (2,21 MB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:FNM - Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
Abstract:V obdobju 1999–2018 je bil v Sloveniji opravljen vsakoletni cenzus gnezditvene populacije bele štorklje Ciconia ciconia. Vsi cenzusi so bili izvedeni skladno z mednarodno metodo popisovanja. Na osnovi gnezdečih parov ali poletelih mladičev smo izračunali populacijske trende bele štorklje v Sloveniji in po posameznih mezoregijah skušali pojasniti vzroke za razlike populacijskih parametrov in procesov med posameznimi sub-populacijami. Tekom cenzusa 2018 smo zbrali podatke o stanju gnezd na srednje napetostnih daljnovodnih drogovih. Zbrali smo tudi podatke o smrtnih primerih bele štorklje zaradi trka v žice ali elektrokucije in podatke o zimskih opažanjih v Sloveniji v raziskovanem obdobju. Populacija bele štorklje se je v Sloveniji v zadnjih dvajsetih letih povečala. Populacijski trend bele štorklje v Sloveniji za obdobje 1999–2018 izkazuje zmeren porast. V raziskovanem obdobju je gnezdilo med 193 in 267 parov (HPa), v povprečju 221. Največje število parov je gnezdilo leta 2014, najmanjše leta 2005. Skupno so v tem obdobju gnezdeči pari (HPa) zasedli 443 različnih gnezd. Povprečno število uspešnih parov (HPm) je bilo 171. Največjo rodnost populacije (JZG) smo ugotovili v letu 2017, najmanjšo pa leta 2006. V povprečju je poletelo 435 mladičev letno. Povprečni gnezditveni uspeh gnezdečih parov (JZa) je bil 1,99, največji leta 2000, najmanjši leta 2006. Povprečni gnezditveni uspeh uspešnih parov (JZm) je bil 2,52, največji leta 2007, najmanjši pa leta 2006. Bela štorklja je v raziskovanem obdobju gnezdila v 18 različnih mezoregijah v državi. Jedro populacije bele štorklje je v SV in JV Sloveniji. Največji delež gnezdečih parov (HPa) in poletelih mladičev (JZG) je bil na Murski ravni, kjer je tudi največ potencialnih prehranjevališč bele štorklje v Sloveniji. Sub-populacije bele štorklje so na tradicionalnih gnezdiščih v SV delu Slovenije v večini v upadu ali stabilne, med tem ko so sub-populacije v mezoregijah, kamor so se razširile po letu 1999, v večini v porastu. Upad številčnosti sub-populacij pojasnjujemo s spremembam rabe tal in kvalitete prehranjevališč ter z gostotno odvisnimi procesi v populaciji. Spremembe vedenja bele štorklje, ki so posledica vpliva globalnega segrevanja in poseganja človeka v naravo, smo ugotovili tudi v Sloveniji. Danes je večina gnezd bele štorklje v Sloveniji na srednje napetostnih daljnovodnih drogovih (81 %), kar predstavlja štorklji številne nevarnosti. Ugotovili smo, da je več kot 80 % gnezd na daljnovodnih drogovih ogroženih, od tega 34 % kritično. Največ gnezd je ogroženih zaradi treh razlogov: bližine transformatorja, droga s pokončnimi izolatorji ali zaradi stika gnezda z žicami. V obdobju 1999–2018 smo zabeležili 65 smrtnih primerov bele štorklje zaradi trka v žice ali elektrokucije. V 25 % primerih smo lahko določili element prenosnega omrežja na katerem je prišlo do trka v žice ali elektrokucije in ugotovili, da so najbolj problematični transformatorji in daljnovodi s pokončnimi izolatorji. V zadnjih letih smo opazili povečanje števila prezimujočih štorkelj. V zimi 1999/2000 ni prezimovala nobena, nato so do leta 2010 prezimovale 1–4, po letu 2010 pa je v Sloveniji vsako zimo prezimovalo 3–10 štorkelj. Z raziskovanjem in ohranjanjem bele štorklje lahko dosežemo spremembe, ki so pomembne za ohranjanje biodiverzitete na splošno, zato je pomembno, da ohranjamo ugodno stanje populacije v Sloveniji. Glede na rezultate naše raziskave in drugih sorodnih raziskav zaključujemo, da je za ohranjanje oz. izboljšanje prehranjevalnih habitatov in zmanjšanje smrtnosti bele štorklje v Sloveniji potrebno predvsem ohranjanje optimalnih habitatov bele štorklje (vlažnih in trajnih travnikov) ter zagotovitev varnih srednje napetostnih daljnovodov - med obnovo ali gradnjo novih.
Keywords:bela štorklja, Ciconia ciconia, populacijska dinamika, stanje gnezd, elektrokucija, trki v žice, prezimovanje, naravovarstvene smernice, Slovenija
Year of publishing:2019
Publisher:[U. Gajšek]
Source:Maribor
UDC:598.244.22:591.522(043.2)
COBISS_ID:24921352 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:Q5NMM7LU
License:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
This work is available under this license: Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 International
Views:121
Downloads:17
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Categories:FNM
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Population dynamics of the White Stork Ciconia ciconia in Slovenia between 1999 and 2018, and issues related to its breeding at medium voltage electricity poles
Abstract:Annual census of the White Stork Ciconia ciconia breeding population was carried out in Slovenia using standard methodology between 1999 and 2018. We calculated White Stork population trends in Slovenia for mesoregions, and explained causes for differences in population parameters and processes in sub-populations. During 2018 census, conditions of nests at the medium voltage electricity poles data were recorded. We collected casualties’ data due to collisions in power lines and electrocution and wintering observations data in Slovenia during study period as well. White Stork population in Slovenia has increased in recent years. Population trend in Slovenia between 1999 and 2018 is moderate increase. A total of 193 to 267 breeding pairs (HPa) were counted during the study period, 221 pairs on average. The highest number of breeding pairs was recorded in 2014 and the lowest in 2005. In this period, White Stork breeding pairs (HPa) occupied 443 nests in total. On average, 171 pairs raised juveniles (HPm). The highest fecundity (JZG) was recorded in 2017, the lowest in 2006. On average, 435 juveniles fledged per year. Average breeding success for breeding pairs (JZa) was 1.99, the highest in year 2000 and the lowest in 2006. White Storks were recorded to breed in 18 different regions of Slovenia. Population was concentrated in the NE and SE Slovenia. The largest portion of breeding pairs (HPa) and fledged juveniles (JZG) was found at Murska ravan, where there is most of potential feeding grounds of White Stork. Most sub-populations of White Stork at traditional breeding grounds in NE Slovenia are decreasing or are stable, while sub-populations are mostly increasing in regions where they expanded after 1999. Decrease of sub-populations is explained with changes in land use and quality of feeding grounds changes (degradation) and with population density dependent processes. We noticed differences in White Stork behavior as a consequence of global warming and anthropogenic impact on environment. Nowadays, most White Storks’ nests in Slovenia are placed at the medium voltage electricity poles (81 %) out of which many are White Storks’ danger spots. In the research we evaluated condition of nests at the electricity poles and determined, that more than 80 % of nests are endangered of which 34 % critically. Most frequent threats are: transformer proximity, electricity poles with upright insulators proximity or nest contact with electricity wires. Between 1999 and 2018 we recorded 65 casualties due to power line collision or electrocution. In 25 % cases we could determine the element of electrical network due to which came to collision or electrocution and established that transformers and electricity poles with upright insulators cause the most casualties. In recent years we noticed increase in number of overwintering White Storks. In winter 1999/2000 no White Stork overwintered in Slovenia, afterward up to 2010 1–4 storks overwintered in Slovenia every winter and after 2010 3–10. With research and conservation of White Stork we can achieve changes, which are important for biodiversity conservation in general. Therefore it is important to maintain White Stork favorable population status in Slovenia. Based on our research and other similar studies we conclude it is necessary to maintain or improve feeding habitats and reduce White Stork mortality, which should primarily include conservation and proper management of White Storks’ optimal habitats (wet and permanent meadows) and ensure birds safe power line renovation and construction.
Keywords:White Stork, Ciconia ciconia, population dynamics, nests condition, electrocution, power line collisions, overwintering, conservation guidelines, Slovenia


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