|Abstract:||Fertility reduction, life expectancy prolonging as well as migrations have led to greatly changed population structure in EU, and for which is suggested to change even more, due to mentioned factors. Population structure change further impact on economic, whereas biggest impact of population aging will be significant on pensions, health expenditure as well as on long-term care. Thereby politicians will be in the next few decades at the threshold of economically, budgetary as well as of social challenges. Almost all EU countries have already recognized the need of solving aging impact on public finances and social models.
In this master thesis we focus on population aging impact on health expenditure. In most of OECD countries health spending already fastened the economic growth and numerous projections suggests on medium- and long-term health spending increase, which can lead to fiscal sustainability challenges of certain countries.
New technologies, demographic changes and institutional features of health systems have major impact on health spending increase, whereas demographic changes, namely population aging represent a key factor in increasing health expenditure, as older population need more health care compared to middle-aged population.
For the study within the master thesis, we selected four countries (Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands and England), for which we studied and compared their programs for health spending reduction. Most of the programs are based on a prevention, as many studies shown on preventive to improve lifestyle to the extent of better vitality in later year, which results in the ability to take care of ourselves. Some programs are focused on older people's mental health, where programs try to include people in a community, to prevent loneliness. On the other hand certain countries invest more on development of new, modern technologies, which are based on electronic communications, through which patients can be monitor directly from their homes, by which the quality of older people health care can be drastically improved and by which health expenditure can be consequently reduced. Focusing on using new technologies can as well saves money by numerous health services, namely lowering numbers of hours in hospital beds, lowering number of physiotherapist and working therapist visits and moreover family and specialist clinics visits.
Based on analyzes within the master thesis, we found that most of the programs are really focused|