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Title:Vračanje borcev ISIS v matične države - varnostni vidiki : magistrsko delo
Authors:Avdić, Sanel (Author)
Sotlar, Andrej (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf MAG_Avdic_Sanel_2019.pdf (1,22 MB)
MD5: EF34BD6B775F136730026F3440F0743C
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:FVV - Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security
Abstract:Samooklicana Islamska država – ISIS (ang. Islamic state of Iraq and Syria) je bil prvi primer v zgodovini, ko je neka teroristična organizacija na določenem ozemlju vzpostavila državo z njenimi institucijami in mehanizmi. Teritorialne težje in ekspanzija območja, ki je na vrhuncu obsegalo približno 100 000 kvadratnih kilometrov sirskega in iraškega ozemlja, ter posnetki srednjeveških množičnih eksekucij, ki so preplavili svet, so začeli prižigati varnostna opozorila za mnoge države po vsem svetu, ker tuji borci ISIS prihajajo iz vsega sveta: iz ZDA in Kanade na skrajnem zahodu, številnih evropskih in bližnjevzhodnih držav ter Kitajske in Filipinov na vzhodu. Sprva so bili varnostna grožnja, ker je njihov vodja kalif Abu Bakr al Bagdadi pozval vse pravoverne muslimane in podpornike Islamske države, naj izvajajo teroristične napade v državah, katere podpirajo napade na ISIS ali pa oborožujejo države in organizacije, ki se spopadajo s to teroristično organizacijo. Po kratkotrajnih vojaških uspehih so se začeli kopičiti porazi, ozemlje, na katerem je ISIS izvajala svojo strahovlado, pa se je skrčilo na nekaj sto kvadratnih kilometrov sirske in iraške puščave. Po uradni razglasitvi konca ISIS kot teroristične države, ki ne nadzira več nobenega območja, so se mnogi borci in pripadniki ISIS znašli v kočljivi situaciji. Izbire ni bilo veliko, ali ostati in nadaljevati gverilski boj proti močnejšemu nasprotniku ali pa se poskušati vrniti v svojo matične državo, iz katere so se preselili v obljubljeno deželo. Mnogi so se odločili za drugo potezo, ki je bila olajšana spričo begunskega vala, ki zadnja leta potuje iz Afrike in Bližnjega vzhoda v osrčje Evrope. Sedaj se države ukvarjajo z novo varnostno grožnjo – kaj storiti s tisoči svojih državljanov, ki so se borili na strani ISIS, sedaj bi se pa radi vrnili domov? Problem poglablja tudi dejstvo, da so se mnogi odselili s svojimi družinami in da podatki o vlogi posameznikov v teroristični organizaciji niso dostopni. Čeprav imajo mnoge države izkušnje z rehabilitacijo in reintegracijo bivših tujih borcev in teroristov, zaradi vzpona skrajnih desničarskih političnih strank in gibanj, begunskega vala in terorističnih napadov teroristov ISIS na Zahodu to vprašanje ni samo varnostno, ampak tudi politično. Države se soočajo s tem izzivom različno, brez enotne strategije, nekatere svojim državljanom preprosto odvzemajo državljanstva ter prepovedujejo vrnitev domov, medtem ko druge verjamejo v svoje reintegracijske in rehabilitacijske programe.
Keywords:terorizem, teroristične organizacije, ISIS, radikalizacija, tuji borci, varnostne grožnje, varnostni vidiki, magistrska dela
Year of publishing:2019
Year of performance:2019
Place of performance:Ljubljana
Publisher:[S. Avdić]
Number of pages:IX, 78 str.
Source:Ljubljana
UDC:343.3(043.2)
COBISS_ID:3697642 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:BWJV4AHF
Views:848
Downloads:126
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:FVV
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Secondary language

Language:English
Abstract:Self-proclaimed Islamic state – ISIS (Islamic state of Iraq and Syria), was first example in history, when some terrorist organisation on specific territory functioned as state with its institutions and mechanisms. Territorial claims and rapid expansion, which at their peak included about 100 000 square kilometres or Iraqi and Syrian territory, with videos of medieval style executions which flooded the world, started to alarm many countries around the globe. Mainly because foreign fighters of ISIS come from all over the world, from USA and Canada on the west, many European and middle eastern countries, to China and Philippines on the far east. At first they became security threat because their leader caliph Abu Bakr al Baghdadi called all Muslims and ISIS supporters to conduct terrorist attacks in countries that are part of coalition which is waging war against ISIS, or they are arming countries and groups that are fighting against terrorist state. After quick and short lived military victories, defeats and retreat became reality of quasi state, and ISIS was soon left with only few hundred square kilometres of Syrian and Iraqi desert to impose it iron fisted rule of terror. After loss of all key cities and towns and official end of their state, ISIS members were in tough situation: should they continue fighting guerrilla war against stronger opponent, or should they try to return to their home countries, from which they migrated to their 'promised land'? Many decided for the second option, which was also much easier because of the refugee wave that is traveling recent years from North Africa and Middle East into the heartland of Europe. Now countries have new security threat and problem – what to do with thousands of their citizens that returned home from their ISIS adventure? The problem is much more difficult because of the fact, that many took their families with them, and it’s practically impossible to get information about individual role in terrorist organisation for its every member. Even if many countries have some experience with rehabilitation and reintegration of former terrorists and foreign fighters, because of the rise of radical right winged political parties and movements, refugee wave and after all terrorist attacks through the globe by ISIS members, this issue didn’t became only security, but also political. Countries face this problem differently without common strategy. Some are revoking citizenships and forbidding returning home, while others believe in their reintegration and rehabilitation programs.
Keywords:terrorist organisation, foreign fighters, radicalization, security threat


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