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Title:Vpetost organizirane kriminalitete v formalno ekonomijo - odkrivanje, preiskovanje in dokazovanje : doktorska disertacija
Authors:ID Slak, Boštjan (Author)
ID Dobovšek, Bojan (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf DOK_Slak_Bostjan_2019.pdf (2,48 MB)
MD5: CA79D5A037672673EC3187C469D3C739
PID: 20.500.12556/dkum/dad640c7-ef49-458b-bcc0-5a500209b9a8
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Dissertation
Typology:2.08 - Doctoral Dissertation
Organization:FVV - Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security
Abstract:Organizirana kriminaliteta je globalno percipirana kot ena izmed najresnejših groženj sodobni državni in socialno-družbeni ureditvi. Čeprav lahko v smislu modusa operandi govorimo o zelo starem pojavu, je organizirana kriminaliteta, v terminološki dikciji termin 19. stoletja. Navkljub dejstvu, da tako v smislu modusa operandi, kot v čisto jezikovnem smislu, ne gre za nov pojav, konkretne, globalno sprejete dikcije kaj je organizirana kriminaliteta vseeno še nimamo. Opazno je periodično re-fokusiranje med tem »kdo« je organizirana kriminaliteta in med »kaj je« organizirana kriminaliteta. Omenjena nedorečenost o tem »kaj je« organizirana kriminaliteta, gotovo služi političnim agendam, saj se preko poudarjanja, da organizirano kriminaliteto izvajajo tujci, oziroma neavtohtoni prebivalci neke države ustvarja moralno paniko, ki potem preko stroge represivne politične retorike prinaša politične točke. Na drugi strani se fokusiranje na vrsto kaznivih dejanj, ki prevladujejo znotraj klasične organizirane kriminalitete zakriva storilce beloovratniške in gospodarske kriminalitete, ki dejansko povzroča večjo škodo kot klasična organizirana kriminaliteta. Vpliv (na) gospodarstva se v diskurzu o organizirani kriminaliteti najpogosteje pojavi v navezavi govora o tendencah organizirane kriminalitete po t. i. infiltraciji v formalno gospodarstvo. Slednje je je pogosto videno, kot eno izmed največjih nevarnosti, ki jo povzroča organizirana kriminaliteta, čeprav empirični podatki o obstoju takih groženj niso najbolj preprečljivi (vsaj ne za večino držav). Vseeno pa, četudi skupine organizirane kriminalitete v formalno gospodarstvo ne vstopajo načrtno, fokusirano z izrecnem motivom izvajanja ali prikrivanja kaznivih dejanj so s formalnim gospodarstvom povezane zaradi naravnih denarnih tokov. Vsekakor tudi to ne sme biti spregledano. Neformalna in formalna gospodarska sfera sta neločljivo povezani, saj se vedno del sredstev, zasluženih v eni sferi porabi v drugi. Organizirana kriminaliteta oziroma člani skupin organizirane kriminalitete tu niso izjema, intenzivnost porabe njihovih sredstev v eni izmed sfer variira od višine njihovih (ne)legalnih sredstev in dejanskih razlogov ter želja po delovanju v drugi. V Sloveniji raziskovanje o tovrstni prepletenosti organizirane kriminalitete in formalne ekonomije še ni bilo in zato disertacija predstavlja prvo takšno delo. S klasičnim bi-parcialnem pristopom smo vpogledali v stanje vpetosti organizirane kriminalitete v formalno ekonomijo v Sloveniji. Prvi del disertacije zajema poglobljen in obsežen pregled literature, drugi pa empirično več dimenzionalno raziskovanje, pri katerem je bila za poglavitno metodo uporabljen pregled tožilskih spisov, druga metoda pa strukturirani intervjuju z osebami, ki se pri svojem delu srečujejo s odkrivanjem, preiskovanjem in sojenjem v primerih organizirane kriminalitete. Na podlagi dostopnih podatkov ugotavljamo, da v Sloveniji obseg vpetosti klasične organizirane kriminalitete v formalno ekonomijo ni alarmantne obsežnosti. Med motivi, ki zavisijo od tipa dejavnosti s katero se ukvarjajo poslovni subjekti, ki jih imajo v lasti člani skupine organizirane kriminalitete in tipa kriminalne dejavnosti s katero se le ti ukvarjajo, prevladuje želja po legalnem podjetništvu. V primeru ko gre za izkoriščanje prostitucije, pa so poslovni subjektu uporabljeni tudi za olajševanje oziroma prikrivanje tovrstne aktivnosti. V Sloveniji se direktno preiskovanje vpetosti (infiltracije) organizirane kriminalitete v formalno ekonomijo RS ne izvaja, se pa posredno preko finančnih preiskav, vseeno pogleda v ekonomsko vedenje članov skupin organizirane kriminalitete. V tem obziru, se nakazuje, da so same finančne preiskave dobro narejene in preiskovalci dovolj usposobljeni, toda največji problem predstavlja zakonodaja na področju odvzema premoženja nezakonitega izvora, ki onemogoča ustrezno delovanje na tovrstnem področju. Prav tovrstna zakonodaja predstavlja problem tudi na področju preisk
Keywords:organizirana kriminaliteta, formalna ekonomija, vpetost, odkrivanje, preiskovanje, dokazovanje, doktorske disertacije
Place of publishing:Ljubljana
Place of performance:Ljubljana
Publisher:[B. Slak]
Year of publishing:2019
Year of performance:2019
Number of pages:XVI, 236 str.
PID:20.500.12556/DKUM-73424 New window
UDC:343.98:343.341(043.3)
COBISS.SI-ID:3786730 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:4BG9XZ6F
Publication date in DKUM:08.11.2019
Views:2111
Downloads:318
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:FVV
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Secondary language

Language:English
Abstract:Organized crime is globally perceived as one of the most serious threats to modern state and social order. Although in sense of modus operandi, organized crime has a long history, in the terminological diction, it is a term that emerged in the 19th century. In spite of the old history, we still do not have a globally accepted definitions of organized crime. There is a noticeable periodic re-focusing between "who" is organized crime and "what is" organized crime. This unconcretnes about what is "organized crime" certainly serves the political agenda, since by emphasizing that organized crime simonised with foreigners, or non-autochthonous inhabitants of a country creates a moral panic that then brings political points through strict repressive political rhetoric. On the other hand, focusing on the type of crimes that prevail within classical organized crime the perpetrators of white collar and economic crime – which actually causes more damage than conventional organized crime – are concealed. The influence of (and on) economies in the discourse on organized crime most often occurs in connection when the tendencies of organized crime infiltration into the formal economy, are discussed. The latter is often seen as one of the greatest threats by organized crime, although empirical evidence for the existence of such threats are lacking (at least for most countries). Nonetheless, even if groups of organized crime do not enter into a formal economy with intention and focused on committing or covering crime they are still connected with the formal economy due to natural cash flows. Something that nevertheless should not be overlooked. An informal and formal economic sphere is inextricably linked, as part of the resources earned in one sphere is spent in another. Organized crime or members of groups of organized crime are not an exception, and the intensity of their spending in one sphere varies from the amount of their (un)legal means and actual causes and desires to act in the other. In Slovenia, there has not yet been done a research on such an interlace of organized crime and formal economy, and therefore the dissertation represents the first such work. With the classic bi-partial approach, we looked at the state of integration of organized crime into the formal economy in Slovenia. The first part of the dissertation includes an in-depth and extensive literature review, while the second part is an empirical, in which the examination of prosecution files was used as the main method, and structured interviews with those whose work include either detection, investigation or judging in cases of organized crime as the second method. Based on the accessible data, we conclude that in Slovenia the extend of integration of classical organized crime into the formal economy is not alarming. Among the motives – that depend on the type of activity of business entities owned by members of organized crime groups and the type of criminal activity they deal with, the desire for legal entrepreneurship prevails. In the case of exploitation of prostitution, the business entity is also used to facilitate or disguise this kind of activity. In Slovenia, direct investigation of the inclusion (infiltration) of organized crime into the formal economy of the Republic of Slovenia is not carried out, but indirectly through financial investigations, the economic behavior of members of organized crime groups is still reviewed. In this regard, the financial investigations themselves appear to be done well, and the investigators are sufficiently qualified. The biggest problem is the legislation in the area of taking away proceeds of crime, which prevents proper functioning in this area. Such legislation is also a problem in the field of investigating economic and white-collar crime, which – in the segment of their influence on the formal economy of the Republic of Slovenia – are more damaging than conventional organized crime. Something that was often emphasize
Keywords:organised crime, formal economy, infiltration into formal economy, detection, investigation


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