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Title:Psihiatrični izvedenec v kazenskem postopku
Authors:Sinič, Špela (Author)
Šepec, Miha (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UN_Sinic_Spela_2018.pdf (274,72 KB)
MD5: E6576B492315A93384D958E6875B4B64
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Psihiatrični izvedenec je pomemben del kazenskega postopka že stoletja. Teorija ga opredeljuje kot neodvisnega, zunanjega sodelavca sodišča. Njegova naloga je zlasti, da s svojimi specifičnimi znanji pomaga sodniku pri ugotavljanju obdolženčevega duševnega stanja. Od ustreznih psiho-fizičnih lastnostih le–tega je namreč odvisen razplet oziroma izid kazenskega postopka. Morebitna ugotovljena neprištevnost storilca kaznivega dejanja v času, ko je takšno dejanje izvršil, namreč tako pravno kot tudi moralno – etično preprečuje njegovo kaznovanje. V kolikor se ugotovi, da je bila njegova prištevnost le znatno okrnjena, pa je to faktor, ki lahko vpliva na odmero kazni. Naloga psihiatričnega izvedenca je tudi, da ugotavlja procesno sposobnost obdolženca. Če se pokaže, da ta ni sposoben aktivno uveljavljati svojih interesov na glavni obravnavi, je to razlog, ki preprečuje nadaljevanje kazenskega postopka. Izvedenec psihiatrične stroke torej ugotavlja ali je pri storilcu kaznivega dejanja prisotna katera od duševnih motenj ali duševna manj razvitost ter njeno povezavo z izvršenim kaznivim dejanjem ali sposobnostjo obdolženčeve udeležbe v sodnem postopku. Prištevnost je naravna predpostavka, ki se v kazenskem postopku ne dokazuje. Na podlagi te predpostavke 265. člen Zakona o kazenskem postopku jasno določa, da se mora izvedenstvo odrediti le, ko je prisoten sum o prizadetosti obdolženčeve prištevnosti ter njegovi sposobnosti udeležbe na glavni obravnavi. Delo izvedenca psihiatra se začne na podlagi odredbe, s katero mu sodišče naloži izdelavo izvedenjskega mnenja v konkretni kazenski zadevi. Zavezuje ga dolžnost, da svoje delo opravi strokovno in etično ter da nato predstavi svoje mnenje na način, da bo le – to razumljivo, ne le njemu samemo ter ostalim strokovnjakom sodne psihiatrije, pač pa tudi sodnikom in vsem drugim udeležencem postopka. Izvedensko mnenje je dokaz v kazenskem postopku in je kot vsi drugi dokazi podvržen prosti presoji sodišča. Slednje pomeni, da mora biti predmet kritične presoje sodnika, ki je na koncu tisti, ki poda svojo odločitev o obdolženčevi prištevnosti ali procesni sposobnosti. Zaradi narave svojega poklica so psihiatrični izvedenci izpostavljeni različnim nevarnostim in pritiskom s strani obdolženca ter drugih udeležencev v kazenskem postopku. Velik vir pritiskov pa predstavljajo tudi mediji, ki o njihovem delu poročajo predvsem z negativno noto. Pri opravljanju svojega dela se srečujejo tudi s številnimi etičnimi dilemami, ki izvirajo predvsem iz njihovega dvojnega položaja – po eni strani je psihiater zdravnik, po drugi pa je kot izvedenec »zaposlen« pri sodišču.
Keywords:psihiatrični izvedenec, sodni izvedenec, strokovno znanje, pisna odredba, prištevnost, procesna sposobnost, sum, etične dileme
Year of publishing:2018
Source:Maribor
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:7DEKOZ0C
Views:918
Downloads:133
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Categories:PF
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Licences

License:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Description:The most restrictive Creative Commons license. This only allows people to download and share the work for no commercial gain and for no other purposes.
Licensing start date:21.09.2018

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Forensic psychiatrist in criminal procedure
Abstract:For centuries, the psychiatric expert has been an important part of criminal proceedings. In theory, he is defined as an independent, external collaborator of the court. His most important task is to use his specific knowledge and thus help the judge to determine the mental condition of the accused person. The physical and mental characteristics of the accused person have a great influence on the outcome of criminal proceedings. The determined insanity of the perpetrator at the time of committing the offence legally as well as morally and ethically prevents the punishment. On the other hand, the fact that the perpetrator’s judgment was only slightly impaired during the commitment of the offence is a factor that can have an influence on the duration of the punishment. Furthermore, the task of the psychiatric expert is also to determine the accused person’s capacity to bring proceedings. If the accused person is not capable of actively defending his interests in principal proceedings, this prevents further legal proceedings. The psychiatric expert needs to determine whether the perpetrator has a mental disorder or an intellectual disability. In addition, the psychiatric expert also needs to determine whether and in what way the perpetrator’s mental disorder or intellectual disability is connected to the committed offence or the perpetrator’s capacity to be a party to the proceedings. In criminal proceedings, the sanity of the perpetrator is a natural assumption for which evidence does not have to be provided. In accordance with this assumption, it is defined in Article 265 of the Criminal Procedure Act that an expert’s report is only needed if an impairment of the accused person’s judgement and the accused person’s capacity to be a party to the principal proceedings is suspected. A psychiatric expert is authorised in form of a court order, according to which he needs to provide his opinion in a specific criminal procedure. His duty is to perform his work in a professional and ethical way, as well as to present his opinion in a way which is understandable not only to himself and other experts in the field of forensic psychiatry, but also to the judges and other parties to the proceedings. In criminal proceedings, the expert’s opinion counts as evidence and is as such at the discretion of the court. This means that the expert’s opinion needs to be critically reviewed by the judge, who takes the final decision concerning the perpetrator’s sanity or his capacity to bring proceedings. Due to the nature of their profession, psychiatric experts are exposed to various dangers and pressures exerted by the perpetrator or other parties to the procedure. A great deal of pressure is also exerted by the media, who report about their work in a largely negative way. Due to their “double function” (on the one hand, a psychiatrist is a doctor; on the other hand, he is an expert who is “employed” at the court), psychiatric experts also face numerous ethical dilemmas.
Keywords:psychiatric expert, judicial expert, expert knowledge, court order, sanity, capacity to bring proceedings, suspicion, ethical dilemmas


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