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Izpis gradiva

Naslov:Otroci brez spremstva v Sloveniji in drugih evropskih državah
Avtorji:Soršak, Urska (Avtor)
Kraljić, Suzana (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Datoteke:.pdf MAG_Sorsak_Urska_2018.pdf (1,34 MB)
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Magistrsko delo/naloga (mb22)
Tipologija:2.09 - Magistrsko delo
Organizacija:PF - Pravna fakulteta
Opis:Otroci brez spremstva so tisti, ki se nahajajo zunaj matične države brez spremstva obeh staršev, oziroma brez zakonskega ali po običaju določenega skrbnika in so mlajši od 18 let. Predstavljajo eno izmed najbolj ranljivih skupin beguncev oziroma migrantov. Vsi begunci in ne samo otroci, sicer trpijo že zato, ker so daleč stran iz matične države, svoje družine, prijateljev in doma. Soočajo se s travmami in strahom, ki so posledica življenja v izjemno težkih okoliščinah, v pomanjkanju in v preganjanju ter v nevarnosti, ki jim grozi v državi izvora, kot tudi na sami poti v ciljno državo. Navaditi se morajo na popolnoma drug način življenja na drugem koncu sveta, se vključiti v družbo, ki jim je popolnoma tuja in prestati še posebne postopke, da jim je ostanek v tuji državi sploh omogočen. V primeru, ko gre za mladoletnika oziroma otroka, je položaj še toliko težji, saj se nahaja v tuji državi, brez odrasle osebe, ki bi lahko poskrbela za zagotavljanje njegovih koristi in je prikrajšan za zaščito in varstvo, ki ga nudijo starši oziroma skrbniki. Ranljivost pa izhaja seveda tudi iz njegove mladoletnosti, saj se zaradi svoje nizke starosti še ni pripravljen sam soočati s svetom, novo državo, novimi ljudmi, goro postopki in prilagoditvijo na popolnoma novo življenje. Izpostavljeni so različnim negativnim faktorjem, pogosto postanejo žrtve spolnega, fizičnega ali psihičnega nasilja ali celo žrtve trgovine z ljudmi. Do leta 2015 v Republiki Sloveniji nismo imeli izkušenj z večjim številom otrok brez spremstva, saj je bila za večino to zgolj prehodna ne pa ciljna država, ne glede na to pa statistike kažejo, da število otrok brez spremstva pri nas zadnje stoletje močno narašča. Postopki za obravnavo te skupine mladoletnikov so sicer bili v Republiki Sloveniji kljub ne velikemu številu vzpostavljeni, vendar pa so se primeri reševali posamično in ni bilo ustaljene prakse. Ko so se v letu 2015 pričela vstopanja številnih mladoletnikov brez spremstva so pa se v postopkih namenjenih oskrbi tej skupini migrantov, pokazale pomanjkljivosti. V primeru, ko mladoletniki brez spremstva RS nimajo zgolj za tranzitno državo, ampak tukaj tudi ostanejo, jim je namreč potrebno omogočiti participacijo v družbi in normalen razvoj. Oskrba otrok brez spremstva je zelo široko področje in sega na številne resorje, ki morajo biti primerno urejeni. Gre za postopke od postavitve zakonitega zastopnika do zdravstvene oskrbe, vključitve v šolo in nastanitve, zato je potrebna celovita in podrobna pravna ureditev. Temeljni zakoni na tem področju so Zakon o mednarodni zaščiti, Zakon o tujcih in Zakon o zakonski zvezi in družinskih razmerjih. Zakon o mednarodni zaščiti določa splošna načela, postopke za dodelitev in odvzem mednarodne zaščite, obseg in trajanje, pravice, dolžnosti prosilcev in definira pojme statusa begunca in statusa subsidiarne zaščite. Zakon o tujcih pa določa pogoje in način vstopa, bivanja in zapustitve tujcev v Republiki Sloveniji. Uporablja se za tujce in za vse osebe brez državljanstva, ne pa za prosilce za mednarodno zaščito in za tujce, ki jim je bila priznana mednarodna zaščita in za osebe, ki imajo v Republiki Sloveniji začasno zatočišče. Otroci brez spremstva imajo ob vstopu v Republiko Slovenijo tako dve možnosti. Prva možnost je, da v državi ostanejo brez statusa, kot ilegalni migranti in so nastanjeni v Centru za tujce, dokler se jih ne vrne v njihovo državo izvora. Druga možnost pa jim daje na voljo, da zaprosijo za mednarodno zaščito in počakajo do sprejetja odločitve. Podeli se jim lahko status za določen čas, status subsidiarne zaščite ali trajen status, status begunca in so začasno nastanjeni v Azilnem domu, vsaj za čas, dokler se namestitev ne organizira drugje. Glede na prakso se večina otrok odloči za postopek mednarodne zaščite, ki pa je kompleksen in velikokrat zelo dolgotrajen.
Ključne besede:migracije, mednarodna zaščita, ranljiva kategorija, načelo otrokove največje koristi, azil, žrtve trgovine z ljudmi, Konvencija o otrokovih pravicah.
Leto izida:2018
Založnik:U. Soršak]
Izvor:[Maribor
UDK:342.7:341.215.4-054.72(043.3)
COBISS_ID:5643307 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Licenca:CC BY 4.0
To delo je dosegljivo pod licenco Creative Commons Priznanje avtorstva 4.0 Mednarodna
Število ogledov:53
Število prenosov:8
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Področja:PF
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Unaccompanied children in Slovenia and other European countries
Opis:Unaccompanied children are those who are located outside the home country, unaccompanied by both parents, or without marital or after a particular administrator and are under the age of 18 years. They represent one of the most vulnerable group of refugees or migrants. All refugees and not just the kids, otherwise suffer already because they are far away from their home country, their family, friends and home. They are faced with trauma and fear caused by living in extremely difficult circumstances, in the absence and in the persecution, danger, threatened in the country of origin, as well as on the path in the target country. They have to get used at a totally different way of life on the other end of the world, integrate into society, which to them is completely foreign and must endure even special procedures, so that the residue from a foreign country to them is at all enabled. In the case when it comes to the minor or the child, the situation is even much heavier, as it is located in a foreign country, without adult persons who arrange for the provision of its benefits and is deprived of his protection and the protection that parents or guardians. should offer. The vulnerability also comes of course from its minority since due to their low age they are not ready to cope with the world, new country, new people, a mountain of procedures and adjusting to a completely new life. They are exposed to different negative factors, often become victims of sexual, physical or psychological violence, or even victims of trafficking.By the year 2015 in the Republic of Slovenia we did not have the experience with a greater number of unaccompanied children, as it was for most of them Republic of Slovenia just transient but not the target country, however, statistics show that the number of unaccompanied children in the Republic of Slovenia in last century is growing strongly. Procedures for the consideration of this group of minors, were in Republic of Slovenia in spite of not a large number, in place. However, examples were solved individually and the practice was not established. When in the year 2015 embarkation of many unaccompanied minors began, procedures intended for the care of this group of migrants, has shown its shortcomings. In the case when Republic of Slovenia for unaccompanied minors is not only the transit country, but they stay here, is for them required to enable participation in society and normal development. The care of unaccompanied children is a very broad area and must be properly arranged. The procedures goes from the layout of the legal representative, to medical care, involvement in school and stays, that is why we the comprehensive and detailed legal regime is needed. The basic laws in this field are the Act on international protection, the Act on aliens and the Law on marriage and family relationships act. Act on international protection sets out the general principles, procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection, the extent and duration, rights, obligations of the applicants and defines the concepts of refugee status and of subsidiary protection status. Act on aliens specifies the conditions and method of entry, stay and exit of foreigners in Republic of Slovenia. It is used for the aliens and for all stateless persons, but not for applicants for international protection and foreigners who have been recognised international protection and to persons who have in Republic of Slovenia a temporary shelter. Unaccompanied children have at the time of entry in Republic of Slovenia two options. The first possibility is that they remain in the country without status as illegal migrants and are housed in the Centre for foreigners until they are returned to their country of origin. The second option gives them the opportunity to apply for international protection and wait until a decision is taken.
Ključne besede:migration, international protection, vulnerable category, the principle of the best interest of the child, asylum, victims of trafficking in human being, The Convention on the Rights of the Child.


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