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Title:Upravičljiva skrajna sila : diplomsko delo visokošolskega študijskega programa Informacijska varnost
Authors:Orešnik, Maruša (Author)
Žaberl, Miroslav (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf VS_Oresnik_Marusa_2018.pdf (779,70 KB)
MD5: 3A17F35A777B49BFE1F96371707F70CB
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:FVV - Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security
Abstract:Osrednji element diplomske naloge je institut upravičljive skrajne sile, ki je v pravni teoriji predmet številnih razprav in pri kazenskem pravu sodi med abecedo proučevanja temeljnih institutov. Pravilna razlaga in uporaba instituta skrajne sile sta izredno pomembni in v pravosodni praksi nemalokrat povzročata kar nekaj težav, ki so najverjetneje posledica nezadostnega teoretičnega in zakonodajnega obravnavanja tega instituta, zato bodo v tej diplomski nalogi predstavljena nekatera najpomembnejša teoretična izhodišča v zvezi s tem institutom. Kadar storilec izvrši dejanje, ki ima vse zakonske znake kaznivega dejanja, da bi od sebe ali koga drugega odvrnil istočasno neposredno grozečo nevarnost, nastopi skrajna sila. Skrajna sila predstavlja splošni institut kazenskega materialnega prava, ki je podan, ko gre za kolizijo dveh pravno zavarovanih dobrin oziroma interesov, pri čemer je potrebno za rešitev ene dobrine žrtvovanje oziroma poškodovanje druge. Ker govorimo o posegih v tuje pravne dobrine, je potrebna skrbna presoja po strogih merilih. Sklicevanje na skrajno silo ima kot posledico nekaznovanje storilca. Slovenska zakonska ureditev sledi teoriji diferenciacije, ki razlikuje med dvema oblikama skrajne sile, in sicer med upravičljivo ter opravičljivo skrajno silo. Obe obliki in njuna primerjava sta opisani v prvem delu diplomskega dela. Pravno podlago instituta upravičljive skrajne sile, ki je opisana v drugem delu diplomske naloge, predstavlja Kazenski zakonik (v nadaljevanju KZ). Slovenska zakonska ureditev je dolgo poznala zgolj upravičljivo skrajno silo vse do leta 2008, ko je na novo uveljavljeni KZ-1 ukinil omenjeno obliko in jo nadomestil z institutom imenovanim skrajna sila, ki je izključeval storilčevo krivdo in njegovo kaznivost. Korenito spremembo je prinesla novela KZ-1B iz leta 2012, ta je sledila rešitvi, ki razlikuje med upravičljivo in opravičljivo skrajno silo. Zadnji del naloge opisuje primerjalno pravno ureditev instituta v posameznih državah, kjer je bilo ugotovljeno, da se evropski kontinentalni sistemi v primerjavi s sistemi »common law« precej drugače soočajo s problematiko instituta skrajne sile.    
Keywords:diplomske naloge, upravičljiva skrajna sila, opravičljiva skrajna sila, protipravnost, kazensko materialno pravo, Kazenski zakonik
Year of publishing:2018
Year of performance:2018
Place of performance:Ljubljana
Publisher:[M. Orešnik]
Number of pages:VII, 43 str.
Source:Ljubljana
UDC:343.346(043.2)
COBISS_ID:3618538 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:2YGGWSWL
Views:788
Downloads:184
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Categories:FVV
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Justifiable extreme necessity
Abstract:The central element of this diploma thesis is the institute of justifiable extreme necessity, which has been the subject of many papers on legal theory and which is part of the ABCs of studying fundamental institutes in criminal law. It is extremely important that the institute of extreme necessity is interpreted and used correctly; this is often problematic in judicial practice, most likely because theory and legislation have not sufficiently and properly discussed said institute; hence, this diploma thesis will present some of the most important theoretical backgrounds regarding this institute. When a perpetrator commits an act that contains all the legal elements of a criminal offence in order to avert imminent danger to him/her or to another, this is called extreme necessity. Extreme necessity denotes a general institute of substantive criminal law which is enforced in the case of a collision of two legally protected goods or interests, wherein in order to save one good, the other good must be sacrificed or harmed. As this encroaches on the legal goods of others, it should be judged prudently according to strict criteria. Claiming extreme necessity results in the perpetrator’s impunity. The Slovenian legal system adheres to the so-called differentiation theory which differentiates between two types of extreme necessity, namely justifiable and excusable extreme necessity. Both types are described and compared in the first part of this diploma thesis. The legal basis for the institute of justifiable extreme necessity, which is described in the second part of this diploma thesis, is provided by the Criminal Code. For a relatively long time, the Slovenian legal system knew only justifiable extreme necessity; that is until 2008, when the newly adopted Criminal Code KZ-1 abolished the aforementioned type and replaced it with the institute called extreme necessity, which precluded the perpetrator’s culpability and criminality. A radical change was introduced by the Amending Act KZ-1B of 2012, which adhered to a solution that differentiates between justifiable and excusable extreme necessity. The concluding part of the thesis compares the legal regulation of this institute in individual countries and determines that in comparison to common law systems the European continental systems deal with the issue of the institute of extreme necessity quite differently.
Keywords:justifiable extreme necessity, excusable extreme necessity, unlawfulness, substantive criminal law, Criminal Code


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