|Opis:||The residues of antibiotics and other medicines are becoming an increasingly serious problem because they can be found in discharges from pharmaceutical and manufacturing plant, hospitals and sewage from treatment plants. Various studies showed that antibiotic residues are present in wastewaters and surface waters, and recent studies show an increase in ground water, drinking water and in the soil. Although the measured concentrations are in a wide range from ng/l to µg/l, some degradation products of the active substances may be even more toxic than the parent substance. Preliminary studies have shown that the highest concentrations of antibiotics are found in hospital wastewater. In order to remove such pollutants, existing treatment plants are not suitable, as large amounts of antibiotics remain in the water after cleaning.
The doctoral dissertation presents three processes for removing these pollutants from hospital wastewater. The main purpose was to find advanced, feasible methods for the removal of selected antibiotics from hospital wastewater. In the first part, we focused on the process of purification with sub and super-critical oxidation, where we examined the process parameters: the influence of temperature, pressure, flow and time. In the second part, we carried out the ozonation process, where we monitored the efficiency of wastewater treatment by changing the pH of the sample, the different ozone doses, and the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In the third part, the aerobic reactor was used to clean synthetically prepared hospital wastewater, where we were looking for an optimal residence time. The antibiotic content was determined after each purification method with optimized LC-MS/MS analytical techniques.
In the last part of the doctoral dissertation, all the mentioned cleaning procedures were implemented on a realistic sample of hospital wastewater. The antibiotic content in the real sample before and after purification was determined by solid phase extraction in conjunction with the optimized LC-MS/MS technique. Finally, an oxygen consumption test with an activated sludge for the oxidation of carbon and ammonia was carried out, with which we attempted to determine the toxic effect of purified water on microorganisms in the active mud.|