|Opis:||Before and during the First World War, the people of Prekmurje lived under administration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Prekmurje region belonged to the Hungarian half of the empire and until the Dual Monarchy (1867), the residents of Prekmurje had lived a happy everyday life. After the establishment of the Dual Monarchy, the pressure of Magyarization grew stronger. The ones who opposed the process of Magyarization the most were Prekmurje’s catholic priests (Franc Ivanocy, Jožef Klekl Sr.), who were followed by some other residents. During the First World War, the wish to unite Prekmurje with the mother nation had emerged among some Slovenes in Prekmurje; however, the so-called Declaration Movement did not gain greater recognition. Many residents of Prekmurje still had faith in the existence of the long-standing Habsburg Monarchy.
After the First World War, Prekmurje belonged to Hungary. The people of Prekmurje had remained under the Hungarian state until August 1919, when Prekmurje was annexed to the Kingdom of SHS. At first, the Slovenes in Prekmurje did not visibly engage in establishing their position, for they were not politically organized, and the economic and social situation was bad as well. The Hungarian authority tried to restrain the influence of “Yugoslavianism” and was convincing the people of Prekmurje, with the so-called Wendish theory, that they were not Slovenes. The Hungarian government was also promising autonomy to the people of Prekmurje, with which they wanted to keep the people inside their state. However, the wish to unite with their mother nation grew stronger among the people of Prekmurje. Rudolf Maister and the National Council for Styria contributed greatly to that. The Council organized gatherings, which were visited by the people of Prekmurje, who publicly declared their Slovene nationality and demanded the union of Prekmurje with its homeland. The position of the residents of Prekmurje aggravated at the time of the Communist authority in Hungary. Along with poor economic situation, the violence towards the residents of Prekmurje also intensified.
The solution of the Prekmurje Question was promised by Vilmoš Tkalec, a deputy commissioner for the Slovenska krajina. Yet, his activity in Prekmurje was not based on solving the position of Slovenes in Prekmurje; rather, Tkalec wished to achieve the greatest possible autonomy of Slovenska krajina, from which the anti-revolution, lead from abroad by the representatives of the pre-war Hungarian regime, would supposedly spread. Their main goals were the fall of the Communist government in Hungary and the establishment of the old order. Under the pretence of solving the situation of Slovenes in Prekmurje, Tkalec promised the union of Prekmurje and the entire Slovenska Krajina with the Kingdom of SHS or Austria. In light of that, he organised military troops and declared the Republic of Prekmurje (Murska republika) in 29 May, 1919. The Republic did not last long, for Tkalec did not ensure the help from Austria and the Kingdom of SHS and was hence quickly defeated.
Despite its short existence, The Republic of Prekmurje shook the ground beneath the Communist authority. After the defeat of Tkalec’s troops, Prekmurje faced the reestablishment of the Communist dominion, which was then more consistent in executing its authority. In order to avoid new incidents, it also pardoned the participants in the overthrow. Even though the old conditions had quickly been restored in Hungary, the fall of the Communist regime followed soon after. In Prekmurje, the authority was taken over by the representatives of the pre-war regime, who could not establish their dominion, for the Paris Peace Conference determined that Prekmurje should belong to the Kingdom of SHS.|