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Title:Genocid
Authors:Žgank, Tea (Author)
Tratnik, Matjaž (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UN_Zgank_Tea_2017.pdf (1,38 MB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:V diplomskem delu sem se ukvarjala s sistematično analizo zločina genocida. Področje preprečevanja genocida je utrpelo pomanjkanje jasnosti o tem, kaj pomeni obveznost preprečevanja genocida, saj v mednarodnem pravu dejansko ni obstoječega "sprejetega kanona" o tem, kako ga preprečiti. Namen diplomskega dela je preučiti, ali in v kolikšni meri je potrebno razumeti/razlagati/razvijati mednarodno pravo, da to omogoča, oziroma bo omogočilo učinkovitejše preprečevanje genocida. Pregled bo celovit, a površinski, osredotočen na pojasnitev osnovnih pojmov in konceptov, pregled aktualnih dilem ter analizo normativne ureditve. Diplomsko delo bo tako omejeno na obveznosti držav in ZN za preprečevanje genocida, in ne bo obravnavalo vprašanj, povezanih z njihovo odgovornostjo v primeru kršitve te obveznosti. Diplomsko delo se začne z opredelitvijo pojma genocid in njegovo umestitvijo v sistem mednarodnega kazenskega prava. V nadaljevanju so primeroma našteti pojavi genocida in genocidu podobnih ravnanj, s poudarkom na analizi genocida v Ruandi in Srebrenici. V naslednjem poglavju je prikazan normativni razvoj koncepta genocida ter proces sprejetja pravnih aktov, nato je podana analiza pravne ureditve in razprava o naravi in nosilcih obveznosti preprečevanja genocida, ki jo nalaga Konvencija o preprečevanju in kaznovanju zločina genocida. Ta pristop je bil izbran zato, ker je za razumevanje prevencije in obveznost preprečevanja, najprej treba razumeti okoliščine, v katerih je bila sprejeta Konvencija in kako so jo razlagali pobudniki. To je pokazalo, da je bila Konvencija sprejeta kot odgovor na izkušnje iz armenskega genocida in še bolj neposredno druge svetovne vojne, v kateri je nastal holokavst. Te okoliščine niso bile odločilne zgolj pri oblikovanju Konvencije, temveč so vplivale tudi na njeno vsebino, na primer, s poudarkom na zadnjih stopnjah genocida. Obveznost preprečevanja genocida iz I. člena Konvencije določa krovno obveznost, ki se nanaša na vsa druga pravila in ukrepe, ki so dovzetni za preprečevanje genocida. Pri prevenciji genocida je potrebno upoštevati vse dejavnike in faze prek treh stopenj preprečevanja: primarne, sekundarne in terciarne. Te tri ravni se nanašajo na obdobje pred začetkom konflikta, ki lahko vodi v genocid (primarna raven), med konfliktom, ki lahko privede do genocida (sekundarna raven) ter med in po dejanskem genocidu (terciarna raven). Pomembno je upoštevati, da so dejavniki in faze v procesu genocida povezani in skupaj ustvarjajo okolje, ki je ugodno za pojav genocida ter, da postopek genocida ni linearen – vse je odvisno od posebnosti vsakega kraja in situacije. Preventivne ukrepe je potrebno izvajati na vsaki ravni, brez gotovosti, da se bo genocid zgodil in brez gotovosti, da bodo ti absolutno preprečili genocid. Glede vprašanja časovnega obsega obveznosti preprečevanja je bilo sklenjeno, da obveznost ni časovno omejena, kar lahko povežemo z ugotovitvami prejšnjih poglavij, da je preprečevanje stalen proces. Prav tako merilo MKS o poznavanju resnega tveganja genocida ne omejuje obveznosti preprečevanja genocida, ker je tveganje lahko celo v zgodnji fazi postopka genocida resno.
Keywords:mednarodno javno pravo, mednarodna hudodelstva, človekove pravice, genocid, Konvencija o preprečevanju in kaznovanju zločina genocida, Združeni narodi, prevencija
Year of publishing:2017
Publisher:[T. Žgank]
Source:Maribor
UDC:341.485(043.2)
COBISS_ID:5446443 Link is opened in a new window
License:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
This work is available under this license: Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 International
Views:58
Downloads:12
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Categories:PF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Genocide
Abstract:In this thesis I have made a systematic analysis of the crime genocide. The field of prevention of genocide has suffered from insufficiencies of clarity on what the obligation to prevent genocide entails, since there is actually no existing “accepted canon” of theories in international law on how to prevent genocide. The aim of this thesis was to examine whether and to what extent international law should be understood/interpreted/developed in a way that it allows or enables a more effective prevention of genocide. The review will be comprehensive, but superficial, focused on clarifying basic concepts, reviewing current dilemmas and analyzing regulatory framework. Thesis is limited to the obligation of states and the UN to prevent genocide and it does not treat questions related to their responsibility in case of the breach of that obligation. This thesis begins with definition of the concept of genocide and its placement in the system of international criminal law. The following are examples of genocide and genocide-like practices, with an emphasis on the analysis of the genocide in Rwanda and Srebrenica. The next section started by explaining the normative development of the concept of genocide and the origin and adoption of legals acts before analyzing legal regulation and discussing the nature and bearers of the obligation to prevent genocide that the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide imposes. This approach was chosen because to understand prevention and the obligation to prevent genocide, it is paramount to have recourse to the circumstances under which this convention was adopted, as well as how it was understood by its initiators. The explanation of the genesis revealed that the Convention was initiated from the experience of the Armenian genocide and even more directly from the Second World War during which the Holocaust occurred. These circumstances were not only determinant in creating that convention but also influenced its content, for instance by putting much emphasis on the last stages of genocide. The obligation to prevent genocide in Article I of the Convention provides umbrella obligation that applies to all other rules and measures that are susceptible of having effect to the prevention of genocide. Prevention of genocide needs to take into consideration all the factors and phases through the three levels of prevention: primary, secondary, and tertiary. These three levels refer to the period before the beginning of a conflict that may lead to genocide (primary level), during a conflict that may lead to genocide (secondary level), and during and after the actual genocide (tertiary level). It is important to note that factors and phases in the process of genocide are very much interconnected in the sense that they create together an environment that is conducive to the phenomenon of genocide and secondly, that the genocide process is not linear - it all depends on the particularity of each place and situation. The measures must be taken at each level without the certainty that genocide may happen and without certainty that they will absolutely prevent it from happening. Regarding the question of the the temporal scope of the obligation to prevent genocide, it was concluded that the obligation is not temporally limited, which can be linked to the findings in previous chapters that prevention is a permanent process. Furthermore, the ICJ criterion on knowing the serious risk of genocide does not limit the obligation to prevent genocide, since the risk can be serious even at an early stage in the genocide process.
Keywords:International public law, International crimes, Human rights, genocide, Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, United nations, prevention


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