|Opis:||The word terrorism is closely related to the word Middle East. The Middle East region is very important for mankind. Three of the major religions of the world, Jewish, Christian and Islamic all began in the Middle East. All three religions are monotheistic, i.e. they believe there's only one god. But these religions, in particular Jewish and Islamic, are the reason that the Middle East region has, throughout the history, been a region of constant confrontation between Jews and Arabs.
In the diploma thesis we described all types of terrorism that appeared in this region and also the effect that superpowers had on those developments. First, we described the Zionist terrorist groups Irgun and Etzel.
In 1948, the Jews established the State of Israel. In the same year the First Arab-Israeli War erupts, in which the Arab countries are defeated. The consequences of this war are catastrophic. There are mass evictions of Palestinians from Israel. At the same time, the Palestinians start with terrorist attacks, which are carried out by unrelated terrorist groups. In 1964, on the initiative of Egypt, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is established. When Yasser Arafat takes control, PLO becomes radicalized and begins with terrorist attacks against Israeli targets, not only in Israel, but around the world. Following agreement in Camp David, where Egypt and Israel make peace, Palestinians lose their main ally, Egypt. Radicalization also takes place within the Palestinians themselves. An increasing importance is being given to Islamic faith. Shayk Ahmed Yassin starts a new terrorist group Hamas, which is, unlike PLO, completely under the influence of radical Islam. An even greater radicalization is the result of an agreement between PLO and Israel in Oslo, 1993, with which the PLO recognized the existence of two countries in the Palestinian region. Hamas becomes the strongest Palestinian terrorist and political organization. The withdrawal of the Soviet Union from Afghanistan and the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 cause turmoil in terrorism. Until then, the main goal of Islamic terrorists was Israel, the turmoil causes the main goal to become world war – jihad against all enemies of Islam. The Al Qaeda terrorist group, which is the main advocate of this new Islamic terrorism, is not confined to narrow regional area, unlike PLO and Hamas. The main enemy of Al Qaeda is no longer just Israel and its goal is no longer the establishment of Islamic state in the area of Palestine, instead its goal is Western civilization as the main enemy of Islam. The United States, with its attack on Iraq, cause armed conflict between Sunni and Shiites. A new terrorist organization emerges, Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), which fights against American occupation of Iraq. In the beginning ISI is part of Al Qaeda. In 2013, the name is changed to the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL). Her leader becomes Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. It is supported by the Iraq Sunni. If Al Qaeda was more concerned with high-profile terrorist attacks, ISIL was trying to establish a caliphate in Iraq and Syria. Due to its excellent military organization, it occupied a large area of Iraq. It got involved in the Civil War in Syria. In June 2014 it is renamed the Islamic State (IS). The Syrian city of Ar-Rakah is proclaimed the capital city of caliphate. Other countries involved in the war in Syria (USA, Russia, Iran, Turkey) soon realize that IS has become to strong and they help Iraq and Kurds destroy IS. There is currently no organized terrorist group to succeed Al Qaeda and ISIL in the region.|