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Title:Police interrogations through the prism of science
Authors:ID Areh, Igor (Author)
Files:.pdf Psiholoska_obzorja_2016_Areh_Police_interrogations_through_the_prism_of_science.pdf (335,17 KB)
MD5: AE8390157AFE879B93348DA567C0B9D0
PID: 20.500.12556/dkum/a8e41209-ddc7-4156-af04-fcedf9def4de
 
URL http://psiholoska-obzorja.si/article?id=440
 
Language:English
Work type:Scientific work
Typology:1.02 - Review Article
Organization:FVV - Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security
Abstract:Several approaches can be employed for information gathering from human sources, differing in their theoretical basis, goals, realisation, and ethical acceptability. The paper critically presents and compares two prevalent approaches to suspect interrogation used by the police. The older, prevalent interrogation approach focuses on obtaining suspects' incriminating statements and admissions, which severely elevates the risk of false confessions. Consequently, this interrogation approach is termed accusatorial or coercive since suspects are forced to admit to a crime. The newer interrogation approach is the information-gathering approach, also known as the investigative interview. It focuses on gathering accurate information in order to exclude or accuse a suspect in a criminal investigation. In comparison with coercive interrogation models, the information-gathering approach has a lower probability of false confessions since suspects are exposed to significantly lower levels of psychological pressure. Moreover, it is ethically more acceptable, has scientific grounds, enables the gathering of more accurate information, and has been found to be at least as ef fective as the coercive approach in criminal investigations. The investigative interview relies mainly on findings from social psychology. An analysis of coercive interrogation models reveals that they have no scientific basis and as such rely mainly on uncorroborat ed common-sense assumptions from authorities. In developed countries, coercive interrogation models are increasingly being replaced by the information-gathering approach, a trend connected with the enforcement of high human rights standards and a higher aware ness of risks associated with coercive interrogation methods by the general public, academia, and professionals alike.
Keywords:social psychology, interrogation, police, suspects, coercion, investigative interview
Publication status:Published
Publication version:Version of Record
Year of publishing:2016
Number of pages:str. 18-28
Numbering:Letn. 25
PID:20.500.12556/DKUM-66855 New window
ISSN:2350-5141
UDC:316.6:343.102
ISSN on article:2350-5141
COBISS.SI-ID:3105002 New window
DOI:10.20419/2016.25.440 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:GR3EAMMR
Publication date in DKUM:13.07.2017
Views:1815
Downloads:398
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Categories:Misc.
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Psihološka obzorja
Publisher:Društvo psihologov Slovenije
ISSN:2350-5141
COBISS.SI-ID:271603200 New window

Licences

License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.
Licensing start date:13.07.2017

Secondary language

Language:Slovenian
Title:Policijska zaslišanja skozi prizmo znanosti
Abstract:Za pridobivanje informacij od človeških virov se uporablja več pristopov, ki se med seboj razlikujejo v teoretičnih temeljih, ciljih, izvedbi in etični sprejemljivosti. V članku sta kritično predstavljena in primerjana dva prevladujoča pristopa zasliševanj osumljencev, ki ju uporabljajo v policiji. Starejši in prevladujoč zasliševalski pristop je osredotočen na pridobivanje obremenilnih izjav ali priznanj s strani osumljencev, kar nevarno dviguje verjetnost pridobitve izsiljenega priznanja. Zaradi tega se ta pristop imenuje obtožilni ali prisilni, saj osumljence sili k priznanju. Novejši zasliševalski pristop, imenovan preiskovalni intervju, je osredotočen na pridobivanje točnih informacij, s katerimi policija išče dokaze za izločitev ali obdolžitev osumljenca. Verjetnost za obdolžitev in obsodbo nedolžne osebe je tako manjša, saj so osumljenci manj izpostavljeni psihičnim pritiskom. V primerjavi s prisilnim zasliševalskim pristopom je pristop zbiranja informacij etično bolj sprejemljiv, ima znanstvene temelje, omogoča pridobivanje bolj točnih informacij, pri preiskovanju kaznivih dejanj pa je vsaj toliko učinkovit kot prisilni pristop. V preiskovalno intervjuvanje so vgrajena predvsem spoznanja s področja socialne psihologije. Analiza prisilnih zasliševalskih modelov kaže, da so brez znanstveno- teoretičnih temeljev in so tako zasnovani predvsem na nepreverjenih zdravorazumskih domnevah strokovnih avtoritet. V vsesplošno bolj razvitih državah se prisilni model umika modelu zbiranja informacij, kar je povezano s praktičnim uveljavljanjem visokih standardov varovanja človekovih pravic in z ozaveščenostjo strokovne, akademske ter laične javnosti o tveganjih povezanih s prisilnimi zasliševalskimi metodami.
Keywords:socialna psihologija, zaslišanje, zasliševanja, policija, osumljenci, prisila, preiskovalni intervju


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