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Title:Resolution of the stochastic strategy spatial prisoner's dilemma by means of particle swarm optimization
Authors:Zhang, Jianlei (Author)
Zhang, Chunyan (Author)
Chu, Tianguang (Author)
Perc, Matjaž (Author)
Files:.pdf PLoS_ONE_2011_Zhang_et_al._Resolution_of_the_Stochastic_Strategy_Spatial_Prisoner_s_Dilemma_by_Means_of_Particle_Swarm_Optimization.PDF (627,24 KB)
URL http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021787
Work type:Scientific work (r2)
Typology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:FNM - Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
Abstract:We study the evolution of cooperation among selfish individuals in the stochastic strategy spatial prisoner's dilemma game. We equip players with the particle swarm optimization technique, and find that it may lead to highly cooperative states even if the temptations to defect are strong. The concept of particle swarm optimization was originally introduced within a simple model of social dynamics that can describe the formation of a swarm, i.e., analogous to a swarm of bees searching for a food source. Essentially, particle swarm optimization foresees changes in the velocity profile of each player, such that the best locations are targeted and eventually occupied. In our case, each player keeps track of the highest payoff attained within a local topological neighborhood and its individual highest payoff. Thus, players make use of their own memory that keeps score of the most profitable strategy in previous actions, as well as use of the knowledge gained by the swarm as a whole, to find the best available strategy for themselves and the society. Following extensive simulations of this setup, we find a significant increase in the level of cooperation for a wide range of parameters, and also a full resolution of the prisoner's dilemma. We also demonstrate extreme efficiency of the optimization algorithm when dealing with environments that strongly favor the proliferation of defection, which in turn suggests that swarming could be an important phenomenon by means of which cooperation can be sustained even under highly unfavorable conditions. We thus present an alternative way of understanding the evolution of cooperative behavior and its ubiquitous presence in nature, and we hope that this study will be inspirational for future efforts aimed in this direction.
Keywords:cooperation, prisoner's dilemma, particle swarm optimization, stochastic strategies
Year of publishing:2011
Number of pages:str. 1-7
Numbering:št. 7, Letn. 6
ISSN on article:1932-6203
COBISS_ID:18703112 Link is opened in a new window
DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0021787 Link is opened in a new window
License:CC BY 4.0
This work is available under this license: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:PloS ONE
Publisher:Public Library of Science
COBISS.SI-ID:2005896 New window

Document is financed by a project

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project no.:Z1-2032
Name:Fizika konfliktov in njihova razrešitev

Secondary language

Keywords:kooperacija, dilema zapornika, mnogo-delčna optimizacija, naključne strategije


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