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Title:Pravna ureditev instituta mednarodne zaščite
Authors:Repnik, Vita (Author)
Tratnik, Matjaž (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UN_Repnik_Vita_2017.pdf (601,48 KB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Že pred sprejetjem Konvencije o statusu beguncev (krajše Ženevske konvencije) iz leta 1951 so bili postavljeni temelji mednarodne zaščite (Splošna deklaracija človekovih pravic), vendar je slednja v kombinaciji s Protokolom iz leta 1967 prva vpeljala v pravno terminologijo izraz »begunec« ter njegovo definicijo, ki še danes predstavlja glavni steber razvoja begunskega prava. Ženevska konvencija predvideva tudi pogoje za pridobitev statusa begunca ter razloge za njegovo izgubo, pravni status teh oseb v državi pridobitve azila, minimalne standarde za ravnanje z begunci ter dolžnosti držav podpisnic. Poseben status med načeli ima načelo »non-refoulement« oziroma načelo nevračanja, ki je splošno načelo mednarodnega prava in zavezuje tudi države, ki niso podpisnice Ženevske konvencije. Njegovo bistvo je, da države sprejemnice ne smejo begunca vrniti na ozemlje države, kjer bi bilo njegovo življenje ogroženo zaradi njegove rase, vere, državljanstva, političnega prepričanja ali pripadnosti določeni družbeni skupini. Za nadzor nad implementacijo in izvajanjem Ženevske konvencije skrbi Agencija Združenih narodov za begunce, oziroma krajše UNHCR, katere naloga je zagotavljanje mednarodne zaščite in iskanje dolgoročnih rešitev za begunce, pomoč pri njihovi vključitvi v okolje nove države ter vrnitvi v njihovo matično državo. Evropska unija si že od leta 1999 prizadeva za poenotenje zakonodaje na področju mednarodne zaščite in s tem vzpostavitev skupnega evropskega azilnega sistema. Oblikovanje le tega je potekalo v dveh fazah, skozi kateri so bile sprejete nekatere direktive in uredbe, ki določajo skupne standarde ter zagotavljajo boljše sodelovanje med državami, kar naj bi pripeljalo do enakega obravnavanja prosilcev za mednarodno zaščito ne glede na to, v kateri državi so vložili prošnjo. To zagotavljajo predvsem Dublinska uredba v povezavi z EURODAC uredbo, Recepcijska direktiva, Kvalifikacijska direktiva ter Postopkovna direktiva. Republika Slovenija je kot članica Evropske unije bila dolžna vsebino teh dokumentov prenesti v svojo pravno ureditev, ki jo na tem področju trenutno realizirata dva poglavitna zakona, in sicer Zakon o mednarodni zaščiti ter Zakon o tujcih, temelje za sprejemanje takšnih zakonov pa je Slovenija zagotovila že z nekaterimi določbami iz Ustave Republike Slovenije. Zakon o mednarodni zaščiti deli status mednarodne zaščite na dve obliki, in sicer na status begunca ter subsidiarno zaščito, prav tako pa vsebuje postopkovne določbe. Zakon o tujcih določa pogoje in načine vstopa, zapustitev in bivanje tujcev v Republiki Sloveniji, medtem ko njegova novela uvaja še možnost sprožitve posebnega ukrepa, ki bi ob posebnih migracijskih razmerah omejil vstop tujcev v Slovenijo.
Keywords:begunec, mednarodna zaščita, azil, Konvencija o statusu beguncev, skupni evropski azilni sistem, zakonodaja Republike Slovenije
Year of publishing:2017
Publisher:[V. Repnik]
Source:Maribor
UDC:341.24(043.2)
COBISS_ID:5428523 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:EAPA6HXT
Views:963
Downloads:230
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:PF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Legal regulation of the institute of international protection
Abstract:Even before the adoption of Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (shorter the Geneva Convention) held in 1951, foundations of international protection (Universal Declaration of Human Rights) were laid, but the latter, in combination with the 1967 Protocol first introduced the term "refugee" and its definition in legal terminology, which today represents the main pillar of the development of refugee law. The Geneva Convention also states the conditions necessary for applying for the refugee status and reasons for a potential loss, the legal status of these persons in the country that granted them asylum, minimum standards for the treatment of refugees and the obligations of member states. The special status of these principles has the principle of "non-refoulement", which is a general principle of international law and even commits countries that are not signatories to the Geneva Convention. Its essence is that countries should not return refugees to the country where their life would be threatened because of their race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group. Control of implementation of the Geneva Convention concerns the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR), whose mission is to provide international protection and find long-term solutions for refugees, assist them with their integration into the new country’s environment and return to their country of origin. Since 1999 the European Union seeks to unify legislation in the field of international protection and the establishment of a Common European Asylum System. The establishment of the latter took place in two stages, through which numerous directives and regulations were passed, setting out common standards and ensuring better cooperation between countries, which should lead to equal treatment of applicants for international protection, irrespective of the country in which they have filed an application. This is mainly being ensured by the Dublin Regulation, in conjunction with the EURODAC regulation, the Reception Conditions Directive, Qualification Directive and the Asylum Procedures Directive. The Republic of Slovenia as a member of the European Union was required to implement the contents of these documents into its own legal system, which is currently being realized by two major bills, the International Protection Act and the Aliens Act. The foundation for the adoption of such laws, Slovenia guaranteed already with certain provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia. The International Protection Act parts the international protection status in two forms, the refugee status and subsidiary protection, and also contains procedural provisions. The Aliens Act lays down the conditions and ways of entering, leaving and the stay of foreigners in the Republic of Slovenia, while its amendment also introduces the possibility of launching a special measure, which could limit the number of refugees entering the Republic of Slovenia.
Keywords:refugee, international protection, asylum, Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, a Common European Asylum System, the legislation of the Republic of Slovenia


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