|Opis:||This doctoral dissertation is focused on the benefits of supercritical fluids technology in several industry processes. Although, supercritical CO2 is currently the most employed supercritical fluid at laboratory scale, its presence in the industry field is still limited, due to the necessity of high investment costs. Despite that fact, operations with supercritical CO2 are cheap, environmentally friendly and simple, which make it an excellent alternative to organic compounds. Extraction and separation of highly pure active compounds, such as xanthohumol or beta-sitosterol, are demanded for pharmaceutical or food industries, which create an excellent opportunity for supercritical CO2 operations, since they are solvent free.
This manuscript is divided into three different parts. In the first part, conventional extraction processes and supercritical fluid process are theoretically compared and supercritical fluid extraction from saw palmetto berries is presented. In the second part, conventional chromatographic techniques and supercritical fluid chromatography are theoretically compared and separation of xanthohumol from hop extracts by supercritical fluid chromatography is presented. In the last part, different encapsulation and emulsification processes are listed and defined. These processes are very important for food and pharmaceutical companies, since several active compounds are not water soluble which create the necessity of different formulations in order to be solved in an appropriate media.
Regarding the experimental part, extractions from saw palmetto berries were performed at various pressures and temperatures, which were higher than the ones that were applied in previous studies, in order to estimate and calculate different parameters (solubility, extraction kinetic curves, composition,…), and to compare different studies. Separation of xanthohumol was carried out in a homemade supercritical chromatography, which manageable variables were temperature, pressure, mass flow-rate, modifier, and stationary phase. The results were compared with those ones which were obtained using conventional techniques, in order to prove the suitability and the improvement of this technique against others tecniques.|