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Izpis gradiva

Naslov:Financiranje sistema za ravnanje z odpadno embalažo
Avtorji:Petrovič Mihelič, Redy (Avtor)
Škof, Bojan (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Datoteke:.pdf MAG_Petrovic_Mihelic_Redy_2017.pdf (1,09 MB)
MD5: 02187825C5DC12BA4D9C305DBDA53657
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Magistrsko delo/naloga (mb22)
Tipologija:2.09 - Magistrsko delo
Organizacija:PF - Pravna fakulteta
Opis:Odpadna embalaža predstavlja velik javnofinančni problem, zato sem se v nalogi osredotočil na analizo financiranja sistema za ravnanje z embalažo in odpadno embalažo v Sloveniji. Proučil sem zakonodajo, pravne predpise, akterje, ki urejajo predmetno področje in ocenil dejansko stanje v letih od 2009 do 2016. Težave pri financiranju in nastanek stroškov izhajajo iz sistemskih pomanjkljivosti. Vrsto slabosti predstavlja način financiranja zbiranja odpadne embalaže, ker družbe za ravnanje z odpadno embalažo niso sofinancirale zbiranja odpadne embalaže in postavitve infrastrukture za ločeno zbiranje odpadne embalaže, temveč sta se zbiranje in nabava infrastrukture v celoti zagotavljali s ceno gospodarske javne službe zbiranja in prevoza komunalnih odpadkov. Sistem zato ni spodbujal gospodinjstev in izvajalcev gospodarske javne službe zbiranja komunalnih odpadkov, da bi zbrali več odpadne embalaže in ni omogočal zadostne preglednosti delovanja sistema in stroškov ter prihodkov sistema v delu, ko morajo družbe za ravnanje z odpadno embalažo zagotavljati predelavo odpadne embalaže, ki jo zberejo v sistemu. Kljub temu pa so gospodinjstva zaradi vse večje ozaveščenosti ločila vedno več odpadne embalaže, čeprav so morala zaradi uvedbe dodatne storitve plačevati zbiranje komunalnih odpadkov po višji ceni. Ministrstvo dolga leta ni zadostno posredovalo s svojimi ukrepi, ni pripravilo meril za določanje stroškov, ni pripravilo operativnega programa niti spremembe zakonodaje in tako ni vplivalo na vire financiranja, čeprav so imeli izvajalci gospodarske javne službe zbiranja komunalnih odpadkov zaradi uvedbe ločenega zbiranja odpadne embalaže večje stroške, ker so morali zagotoviti dodatno infrastrukturo za ločeno zbiranje odpadne embalaže in povečati pogostost odvoza komunalnih odpadkov, česar večinoma niso mogli v celoti nadomestiti z zvišanjem cene za storitve zbiranja odpadne embalaže. Nedorečenost razmerij med udeleženci v sistemu ravnanja z odpadno embalažo je omogočala opuščanje prevzemanja odpadne embalaže pri izvajalcih gospodarske javne službe zbiranja komunalnih odpadkov in povzročala tveganje prelivanja dobičkov iz javnega v zasebni sektor, zaradi tega pa ni bil ustrezno zavarovan javni interes. Podatki za oceno doseganja okoljskih ciljev so bili precenjeni, netočni in nezanesljivi za resne analize in prenovo sistema. Spremljanje in nadzor sistema ni bil zadosten in ciljno usmerjen. K učinkovitejšemu delovanju sistema ni prispevala niti okoljska dajatev - prvič, ker ni bila pobrana v zadostni meri in drugič, ker se zbrana sredstva niso porabljala za zmanjševanje obremenjevanja okolja ali za odpravo posledic, ki nastajajo zaradi vsebnosti okolju škodljivih snovi v embalažnih materialih, kar je glavni namen načela plačila za obremenjevanje, zaradi katerega je bila okoljska dajatev uvedena. V analiziranem obdobju je neustrezna ureditev sistema dopuščala neučinkovito in nepregledno financiranje ter spremljanje in nadzor delovanja sistema za ravnanje z odpadno embalažo in tako puščala odprta vrata za vrsto tveganj znotraj financiranja sistema.
Ključne besede:odpadna embalaža, ministrstvo za okolje, družbe za ravnanje z odpadno embalažo, izvajalci gospodaskih javnih služb, Uredba o ravnanju z embalažo in odpadno embalažo, financiranje, embalažnina, stroški, prihodki, okoljska dajatev.
Leto izida:2017
Založnik:[R. Petrovič Mihelič]
Izvor:Maribor
UDK:336.22(043.3)
COBISS_ID:5320491 Novo okno
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:HP6SIMFY
Število ogledov:885
Število prenosov:119
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Področja:PF
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Financing the system of packaging waste
Opis:Packaging waste presents an enormous public finance problem and this is the main reason for my decision to focus on analysing the financing system for waste packaging and packaging treatment in Slovenia. I carefully examined the legislation, legal acts and agents that regulate this specific field and critically assessed the actual situation regarding it between 2009 and 2016. Systematic imperfections are the source of all financing problems and the source of costs that come along. Numerous deprivations present the financing course of packaging waste collection because companies responsible for the packaging treatment failed to finance it sufficiently and did not develop the infrastructure for separate waste packaging collection. They merely focused on collecting and obtaining of infrastructure for separated waste packaging collection with the price of public service and the communal waste transportation. The system itself failed to encourage households and public service representatives of communal waste into collecting more packaging waste. It also declined the possibility of the sufficient unobstructed system development, costs and income which companies have to provide for packaging waste procession and its system. In contrast, as a direct consequence of environmental awareness, the households started with separation of packaging waste, despite the introduced additional service that eventually led to increased price of communal waste service. Through the past years, ministry failed to take appropriate measures for fixing the cost issues and enhancing the outdated legislation. On the other hand, the communal services started facing higher expenses arising out of the need for extra infrastructure and the garbage removal frequency, but they could not entirely overcome these obstacles with raising prices for their services. Inconsistent relations between the actors in the packaging waste system enabled the abundance of collecting the waste by public service representatives. This allowed the incomes to transfer from public to private sector, where public interest was not secured, but violated. The data for valid evaluation of environmental goals turned out to be overestimated, inexact and unreliable for any serious analysis and system reform, which was basically the result of insufficient and not goal oriented system surveillance and accompaniment. Not even the environmental tax contributed to a more successful system practice and there are many reasons for it. Firstly, the tax oriented for enhancing the system was not collected as it should have been. Secondly, the collected assets were not devoted for diminishing of environmental load or for dismissal of consequences caused by toxic substances in packaging materials, which was the primary reason for introducing the tax at the first place. The analysed period between 2009 and 2016 clearly showed that the inadequate system regulation enabled inefficient and unobstructed financing for packaging waste treatment, and permitted several risks inside the financing of the system itself.
Ključne besede:packaging waste, Ministry of Environment, companies for packaging waste treatment, public service representatives, the Act of package and packaging waste treatment, financing, packaging, expenses, incomes, environmental tax.


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