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Title:Utemeljitev preiskovalnega intervjuja s spoznanji teorije reaktance : magistrsko delo
Authors:Zupanec, Urša (Author)
Areh, Igor (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf MAG_Zupanec_Ursa_2017.pdf (788,19 KB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:FVV - Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security
Abstract:V (kazenskem) pravu je cilj razgovorov z osumljenci, žrtvami, pričami in ostalimi vpletenimi v posamezen primer kaznivega dejanja pridobitev resnične in celotne zgodbe o poteku samega dejanja ter obsodba pravega storilca. Dolgo časa je po svetu prevladoval prisilni način zasliševanja, katerega cilj je pridobitev priznanja. Najbolj znana tehnika je Reidova tehnika zasliševanja, ki pa zaradi svoje neetičnosti in na splošno zaradi napačnega zasledovanega cilja pogosto vodi do napačnih priznanj in posledično obsodb. Cilj je torej dosežen, ni pa dosežena pravica, ki naj bi bila v pravu neko splošno vodilo. Z zavedanjem tega so se v 60. letih 20. stoletja uveljavile v zbiranje informacij usmerjene tehnike, ki težijo k pridobivanju verodostojnih in relevantnih informacij o obravnavanem dogodku. Tu prevladuje po svetu splošno sprejet PEACE model zasliševanja, ki temelji na vzpostavitvi pristnega odnosa med preiskovalcem in intervjuvancem, kar med njima ustvari pozitivno vzdušje in vodi do sodelovanja intervjuvanca ter dosege cilja razgovora. Uporabo modela PEACE podpirajo tudi spoznanja teorije reaktance, ki v svojem bistvu pravi, da vsiljevanje določenega mnenja, mišljenja posamezniku pri njem povzroči odpor, zaradi česar postane še manj dovzeten za naša prepričevanja. Odpor oziroma upor se kaže tako, da se posameznik obnaša ravno nasprotno od z naše strani pričakovanega. Že ta teza, ki v grobem predstavlja bistvo teorije reaktance, podpira uporabo PEACE modela. Empatija preiskovalcev, njihova sproščenost, odprtost torej povzročijo enak odziv pri intervjuvancu, ki je zaradi teh in še mnogih drugih etičnih lastnosti bolj pripravljen sodelovati z nami. Sodelovanje intervjuvanca s pravim motivom, to je izpoved resnice z namenom spoznanja resnice, ne pa zavajanje preiskovalca, pa je pogosto ključno za uspešno razrešitev primera, saj običajno samo dokazi niso dovolj za obsodbo. Preiskovalni intervju, izveden po modelu PEACE, bi se torej moral uveljaviti kot splošno vodilo za izvedbo razgovora z osebami, ki so kakorkoli vpletene oziroma povezane s posameznim primerom kaznivega dejanja, saj predstavlja etično zasledovanje pravega cilja zaslišanj.
Keywords:intervju, preiskovalni intervju, zaslišanje, zbiranje informacij, kriminalistično preiskovanje, forenzična psihologija, teorija reaktance, magistrska dela
Year of publishing:2017
Year of performance:2017
Place of performance:[Ljubljana
Publisher:U. Zupanec]
Number of pages:95 str.
Source:[Ljubljana
UDC:159.9:340.6(043.2)
COBISS_ID:3320042 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:RVINOAFI
Views:1237
Downloads:110
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:FVV
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Justification of investigative interview with the theory of reactance
Abstract:In (criminal) law, the aim of interviewing suspects, victims, witnesses and others involved in a specific criminal case is to obtain a factual and exhaustive timeline of the course of the offense itself and to secure the conviction of the actual perpetrator. For a long time, the globally predominant technique was coercive interrogation, the aim of which was to obtain a confession. The most well-known technique is the Reid interrogation technique, which, due to its unethical nature and more generally, because of the wrong goal being pursued, often leads to false confessions and convictions. While the aim may be achieved, the supposed golden rule in law of justice being served is broken. With that in mind, the 1980s saw the rise of information-gathering techniques, which seek to gain credible and relevant information about the event in question. The dominant model of this interrogation technique is the PEACE investigative interview model, the cornerstone of which is the creation of a genuine relationship between the investigator and the interviewee, which creates a constructive setting and facilitates the cooperation of the interviewee, thereby meeting the objective of the interview. The use of the PEACE model is also supported by the findings of the reactance theory, which, in essence, purports that imposing certain opinions or a way of thinking on an individual makes them grow antagonistic, thereby becoming even less receptive to our attempts at influencing them. The antagonism or defiance makes the person in question behave in the exact opposite manner of what the interrogator expects. This thesis alone, which roughly represents the core of the reactance theory, supports the use of the PEACE model. The empathy, calmness and openness of the investigator in turn facilitates the same response from the interviewee, who becomes more willing to cooperate with us due to these and many other ethical factors. An interviewee cooperating with the right motive, i.e. to tell the truth in order to uncover the truth rather than mislead the investigator is often the key of a successful resolution of a criminal case, since the evidence alone is usually insufficient for a conviction. Investigative interviews conducted in line with the PEACE model should, therefore, be used as a general guideline for conducting interviews with persons in any way involved in or connected to a specific criminal case, as it represents the ethical pursuit of the real objective of investigative interviews.
Keywords:coercive interrogation techniques, information gathering approach, PEACE, reactance theory


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