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Title:Izbrani vidiki odškodninske obveznosti države s poudarkom na kršitvah človekovih pravic
Authors:Arnuš, Tadej (Author)
Ferčič, Aleš (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf RAZ_Arnus_Tadej_i2017.pdf (984,91 KB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Veljavni pravni predpisi v praksi nemalokrat dopuščajo različne razlage. Glede na trenutno uveljavljen sodni sistem odločanja, tj. možnost pritožbenega postopka, se to deloma tudi pričakuje. V praksi pa se lahko pripeti, da določena razlaga zakona pomeni čisto nasprotje z njegovim bistvom. Kadar se to pripeti v sodnem ali upravnem postopku lahko za seboj potegne tudi odškodninsko odgovornost države. Gre za situacijo, ko so posamezniki oškodovani zaradi dejanj ali aktov državnih organov ali nosilcev javnih pooblastil. V magistrski nalogi se bomo osredotočili predvsem na škodo, ki nastane zaradi kršitve človekovih pravic in temeljnih svoboščin. Za odškodninsko odgovornost države morajo biti najprej izpolnjene splošne predpostavke odškodninske odgovornosti, poleg tega pa tudi določene posebne predpostavke. Država je namreč specifičen subjekt javnega prava, zato zanjo veljajo posebna pravila. Še posebej velja to v primeru, kadar država ravna oblastno. Ko torej država, oz. natančneje njeni uslužbenci v sodnih, upravnih ali drugih postopkih odločajo o pravicah posameznikov. Država v teh primerih ravna oblastno oz. z močnejšo voljo, tj. »acta iure imperi«. Klasičnega odškodninskega spora, ko je država v razmerju s posameznikom enakopravna, magistrska naloga ne obsega. Država lahko odškodninsko odgovarja le, ko ravna protipravno. Pravni standard protipravnost se presoja v vsakem primeru posebej, pa vendar na splošno pomeni ravnanje, ki je v nasprotju z zakoni, pri čemer morajo nosilci oblasti zraven zakonov, ki jih je sprejela Vlada RS upoštevati še nadnacionalne predpise, ki jo zavezujejo. Ko je Slovenija leta 2004 pristopila v Evropsko unijo se je zavezala, da bo spoštovala njen pravni red. Zato določeni pravni predpisi, sprejeti na ravni Evropske unije, postanejo sestavni del prava Slovenije, ki jih morajo sodni oz. upravni uslužbenci pri svojem delu poznati in spoštovati. Slovenijo pa zavezujejo še drugi nadnacionalni predpisi. Eden izmed pomembnejših je EKČP, ki jo je Slovenija ratificirala leta 1994. V njej so zapisane ključne človekove pravice, ki bi jih morali priznati čisto vsakemu posamezniku, in katere se naj omejijo samo v izjemnih primerih. Omenjena konvencija pa ni pomembna zgolj zaradi kataloga pravic, ki jih določa, ampak tudi zaradi nadzornega sistema, ki ga je vzpostavila za varstvo teh pravic. Glavno vlogo v tej zvezi ima ESČP, ki je odškodninsko odgovornost države že večkrat prepoznalo. Zakaj je to pomembno za slovenska sodišča? ESČP skrbi za enotno razlago in uporabo EKČP, njegove odločitve pa so obvezne za vsa nacionalna sodišča in vse druge organe in subjekte v državah podpisnicah. Posledično bo moralo slovensko sodišče, kadar bo odločalo o odškodninski odgovornosti države zaradi kršitve človekovih pravic in temeljnih svoboščin, vzeti v obzir tudi že sprejete odločitve ESČP.
Keywords:Odškodninska odgovornost države, predpostavke za odškodninsko odgovornost, država, odškodninski spor, država kot subjekt javnega prava, človekove pravice in temeljne svoboščine, ustava, Evropsko sodišče za človekove pravice, Evropska konvencija o varstvu človekovih pravic in temeljnih svoboščin.
Year of publishing:2017
Publisher:[T. Arnuš]
Source:Maribor
UDC:347.72.035(043.3)
COBISS_ID:5290539 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:ZGH9SVRI
Views:605
Downloads:168
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:PF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Selected aspects of State liability for damages with emphasis on breaches of human rights
Abstract:Current legal regulations in legal practice often allow for different interpretations. According to the established judicial system, ie. the possibility of appeal procedure, is this partly expected. However in practice, there may be situations that a particular interpretation of the law is opposed to the essence of the law. When this happens in a judicial, administrative or other proceedings the State liability for damages can be established. These are cases where individuals have suffered damage as a result of acts of either state bodies or holders of state authority. This master thesis will focus only on the damage caused by the violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms. For establishing State liability for damages must first be fulfilled general assumptions of liability for damages as well as certain specific assumptions, since the State is a special entity under public law. This applies especially in the case when the State acts authoritative, ie. when State by its public servants in the judicial, administrative or other proceedings decide on the rights of individuals. State in these cases acts imperious and therefore with stronger will to the individuals. Conventional dispute, when the state is equal in relation to individuals, the Master's thesis does not cover. The State may be liable for damages only when it acted unlawfully, thus in conflict with the law, which must beside the laws adopted by the Government of Slovenia also consider the supranational regulations that are binding for Slovenia. When Slovenia in 2004 acceded to the European Union it has committed itself to respect its legal system. Therefore, certain legal provisions adopted at European Union level level become an integral part of the Slovenian law. What is more, this supranational provision should be known and respected by the judicial or administrative servants within their labour responsibilities. However, Slovenia is bound by another supranational regulations. One of the most important is the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, which was ratified by Slovenia in 1994. In regulates key human rights and fundamental freedoms that should be recognized for each and every individual, and which should be limited only in exceptional cases. Said convention is important not only due to the catalog of rights that it provides but also because 4 of the control system, which was established for the protection of these rights. Leading role in this connection has European Court of Human Rights, which has State liability for damages repeatedly recognized. Why is this important for the Slovenian courts? European Court of Human Rights concerns the uniform interpretation and application of the ECHR. What is more its decisions are binding on all national courts and all other authorities and bodies in the signatory States. Consequently should Slovenian court, when deciding on State liability for damgaes due to the infringement of human rights and fundamental freedons, take into account also the rulings already taken by the European Court of human Rigths.
Keywords:State liability for damages, assumptions of liability for damages, State, tort dispute, State as entity under public law, human rights and fundamental freedoms, constitution, European Court of human Rigths, The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.


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