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Izpis gradiva

Naslov:Zgodovina nogometa v Kraljevini SHS/Jugoslaviji in v času okupacije
Avtorji:Mudražija, Tin (Avtor)
Mudražija, Tin (Avtor)
Darko, Friš (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Datoteke:.pdf DR_Mudrazija_Tin_i2016.pdf (6,17 MB)
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Doktorska disertacija (m)
Tipologija:2.08 - Doktorska disertacija
Organizacija:FF - Filozofska fakulteta
Opis:Jugoslovanski klubski in reprezentančni nogomet je predstavljal najmnožičnejšo, najbolj priljubljeno in najbolj razširjeno športno panogo v Kraljevini SHS/Jugoslaviji, zanj so se zanimale široke ljudske množice, in kot tak je predstavljal tudi izjemno dober vzvod za širjenje političnih idej takratnemu političnemu vrhu, ki je bil vseskozi prisoten, tako v klubskem kot reprezentančnem nogometu. Z nogometno igro so se ljubitelji športa in drugo prebivalstvo z vseh koncev slovenskih, hrvaških in srbskih dežel, Bosne in Hercegovine, Črne gore, Vardarske Makedonije in drugih delov, ki so bili leta 1918 združeni v Kraljevino SHS in leta 1929 preimenovani v Kraljevino Jugoslavijo, seznanili ob koncu devetnajstega stoletja, približno trideset let po uradnih nogometnih začetkih v Angliji, ki jih povezujemo z ustanovitvijo nogometne zveze v Londonu 26. oktobra 1863. Prvi “nogometaši” na tem prostoru so bili dijaki in študentje, pretežno iz premožnejših družin, ki so jih starši pošiljali na šolanje v različne zahodnoevropske države. V tem primeru ni šlo za neposredni stik z angleškimi nogometnimi “misijonarji”, ampak so se nad nogometom navdušili v različnih zahodnoevropskih državah (predvsem v Švici, Nemčiji in Avstro-Ogrski), kjer je bila nogometna igra med njihovim študijem že dobro razvita. Veliko jih je nogomet treniralo in igralo v lokalnih klubih, kjer so se seznanili z osnovnimi pravili nogometne igre, večina pa jih je med počitnicami domov prinašala tudi nogometne žoge, saj so želeli z novim, dinamičnim športom z žogo seznaniti tudi svoje prijatelje v domovini. Čeprav Kraljevina Srbov, Hrvatov in Slovencev oziroma Jugoslavija zaradi notranjih nasprotij in nerešenih vprašanj, tako socialnih kot nacionalnih, ni izpolnila pričakovanj, so se v novi, skupni državi le odprle nove in večje možnosti tudi za razvoj telesne kulture. Novo gospodarsko in politično okolje je kljub vsem težavam in slabostim, ki jih je imela nova kraljevina, tudi za razvoj športa pomenilo obdobje velikega napredka. Ustanavljanje številnih novih klubov in njihova živahna dejavnost sta 15. aprila 1919 privedla do ustanovitve Jugoslovanske nogometne zveze. To je bila prva športna strokovna zveza v državi, ki je povezovala jugoslovanske nogometne klube ali sekcije in postala organiziran dejavnik v razvoju jugoslovanskega športa. Poudariti je treba, da je v Jugoslovanski nogometni zvezi športna politika izhajala v glavnem iz sporov med Beogradom in Zagrebom, pri čemer so lahko bile manjše podzveze, med njimi tudi ljubljanska, pomemben jeziček na tehtnici, na kateri so ob glasovanjih (skoraj) vedno tehtali le interese velikih. Rdeča nit jugoslovanskega nogometa med obema vojnama je bila tudi ta, da je bilo tako klubsko delovanje kot tudi delovanje krovne nogometne organizacije v državi (pre)pogosto priložnost za zlorabe, korupcijo, dogovarjanje in prirejanje glasovanj. V 17. državnih nogometnih prvenstvih, odigranih med letoma 1923 in 1940, sta po pet naslovov osvojila zagrebški 1. HŠK Građanski in beograjski BSK, beograjska SK Jugoslavija, HŠK Hajduk in HŠK Concordia so osvojili po dva naslova, enkrat pa je naslov osvojil zagrebški HAŠK. 1. HŠK Građanski in BSK sta se tako v zgodovino zapisala kot najuspešnejša jugoslovanska nogometna kluba v obdobju med obema vojnama. Za razliko od klubskega nogometa je jugoslovanska nogometna reprezentanca – nekateri so jo imenovali tudi Beli orli – v pičlih desetih letih (med letoma 1919–1930) iz nogometnega palčka prerasla v svetovno nogometno velesilo, ki je na prvem svetovnem nogometnem prvenstvu v Montevideu leta 1930 osvojila zgodovinsko tretje mesto. Kljub velikemu potencialu pa zgodovinski uspeh Belih orlov na prvem svetovnem prvenstvu v Montevideu ni vplival na nadaljnji razvoj jugoslovanskega reprezentančnega nogometa v tolikšni meri, kot je domača športna javnost to pričakovala. Pričakovati je bilo, da bodo Beli orli zaradi rezultatov iz Montevidea naredili kvalitativni preskok in se dokončno zasidrali med najboljšimi moštvi na svetu, namesto napredka pa je sledil padec v povprečje, iz katerega se jugoslovanski reprezentančni nogomet ni pobral vse do začetka druge svetovne vojne. Po kratki aprilski vojni, ko so Kraljevino Jugoslavijo napadle sile osi, je 17. aprila 1941 jugoslovanska kraljeva vojska podpisala kapitulacijo. Posledica aprilske katastrofe je bila zasedba in razkosanje njenega ozemlja. Večino ozemlja so si prilastile sosednje države napadalke (Nemčija, Italija, Madžarska in Bolgarija), v osrednjem delu je nastala t. i. Neodvisna država Hrvaška (NDH), Srbija v mejah izpred 1912, povečana za Banat in Kosovsko Mitrovico, pa je bila pod neposredno nemško vojaško upravo ter je imela pod Milanom Ačimovićem in Milanom Nedićem omejeno avtonomijo. Novonastale razmere so kmalu postale tudi veliko breme nadaljnjega razvoja jugoslovanskega nogometa, saj je bilo ne le nogometno, ampak kar vse športno udejstvovanje zaradi vojne močno okrnjeno. Nogometni klubi so se soočali z mnogimi težavami: uničena so bila številna nogometna igrišča, stadioni ter klubska oprema, številni nogometaši in klubski funkcionarji pa so padli na fronti ali bili zaprti. Kljub vsem težavam pa je nogometna aktivnost med okupacijo postavila čvrste temelje povojnemu razvoju nogometa na teh prostorih.
Ključne besede:Kraljevina Srbov, Hrvatov in Slovencev, Kraljevina Jugoslavija, jugoslovanski nogomet; prvenstvo Kraljevine SHS/Jugoslavije v nogometu; Pokal Mitropa; jugoslovanska nogometna reprezentanca; Beli orli; Nogometna zveza Jugoslavije; nogometne podzveze; nogomet v okupirani Jugoslaviji 1941–1945.
Leto izida:2016
Založnik:T. Mudražija]
Izvor:[Maribor
UDK:796.332(497.1)"1941/1945"(043.3)
COBISS_ID:22811400 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:645
Število prenosov:223
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Področja:FF
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Vaša ocena:Ocenjevanje je dovoljeno samo prijavljenim uporabnikom.
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:The history of football in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes/Yugoslavia and during occupation
Opis:Yugoslav club and national team football was the most attractive, popular and wide-spread sport in the Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs/Yugoslavia. It attracted masses and thus represented a strong lever for the continuous dissemination of political ideas for the then political elite at the club and national team level. Sports enthusiasts and other people from the Slovene, Croatian and Serbian territories, from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, the Vardar Macedonia and other parts that in 1918 became the Kingdom of SHS and in 1929 the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, were introduced to football at the end of the 19th century, around 30 years after the football association of England was established in London on 26 October 1863. The first “footballers” in this part of the world were high school and college students from wealthy families, whom the parents sent to school to various Western European countries. They did not have a direct contact with English football “missionaries”; instead, they developed an interest for football in various Western European countries (Switzerland, Germany and Austria-Hungary), where football was well developed at the time they went to college. Many trained and played football in local clubs, where they learned the basics of football. The majority took footballs home during the semester break because they wanted to introduce the dynamic ball game to their friends in their homeland. Even though the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later Yugoslavia, did not meet the expectations because of the internal conflicts and unresolved social and national issues, the new joint state opened up new and better opportunities for the development of physical training. Despite the problems and weaknesses that the new kingdom experienced, the new economic and political environment provided fertile ground for the development of sport. The foundation and activities of many new clubs led to the establishment of the Yugoslav Football Association on 15 April 1919, and it became the first professional association in the country that connected Yugoslav football clubs or sections and systematically supported the development of Yugoslav sport. It should be emphasized that sports politics in the Yugoslav Football Association was based on the conflicts between Beograd and Zagreb, whereby smaller subassociations, including the Ljubljana one, were the decisive factor in the voting that almost exclusively regarded the interests of the main players. A common thread of Yugoslav football in the period between the two wars was that both club activities and the activities of the national football association in the country too often became the area of misuse, corruption and rigged voting. Of the 17 national football championships between 1923 and 1940, five were won by the Zagreb 1.HŠK Građanski and the Belgrade BSK; SK Yugoslavia, HŠK Hajduk and HŠK Concordia won two championships; one championship was won by the Zagreb HAŠK. 1. HŠK Građanski and BSK thus became the two most successful Yugoslav football teams in the period between the world wars. In contrast with the club football, Yugoslav football national team - also nicknamed the White Eagles by the home fans and media - grew from a football Lilliputian to a world football superpower in just nine years (between 1919–1930) and won the historic third place in the world football championship in Montevideo in 1930. In spite of the considerable potential, the White Eagles’ historic achievement at the first world championship in Montevideo did not influence the development of Yugoslav national team football to the extent that was expected by the home sports enthusiasts. Many expected that the Montevideo results would launch the White Eagles among the best teams in the world; instead, however, Yugoslav national football team slumped to the low point and failed to recover until the Second World War. After the brief April war, when the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was attached by the Axis powers, the Yugoslav royal army capitulated on 17 April 1941. The consequence of the April disaster was occupation and the breaking up of its territory. Most territory was annexed by aggressors from the neighboring countries (Germany, Italy, Hungary and Bulgaria). Its central part became the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), while Serbia kept the borders from 1912 plus Banat and Kosovska Mitrovica and was under direct German military administration and had limited autonomy under Milan Ačimović and Milan Nedić. The new situation soon hampered the development of Yugoslav football because all sports activities, not only football, were seriously affected by the war. Football clubs were faced with many problems: many football fields were destroyed as well as stadiums and club equipment, and many footballers and club officials died on the front or were imprisoned. In spite of the problems the football activities during the occupation set the foundations for the development of football in this area after the war.
Ključne besede:Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; Kingdom of Yugoslavia; Yugoslav football; Yugoslav Football Championship; Mitropa Cup; Yugoslavia national football team; The White Eagles; Football Association of Yugoslavia; football subassociations; football in occupied Yugoslavia 1941–1945.


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