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Izpis gradiva

Naslov:Jezikovna osnova stare cerkvene slovanščine
Avtorji:Nikolovski, Gjoko (Avtor)
Jesenšek, Marko (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Datoteke:.pdf Doktorat_Nikolovski_-_final.pdf (7,73 MB)
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Doktorska disertacija (m)
Tipologija:2.08 - Doktorska disertacija
Organizacija:FF - Filozofska fakulteta
Opis:Doktorska disertacija z naslovom Jezikovna osnova stare cerkvene slovanščine je razdeljena na štiri dele: uvod, teoretični in empirični del ter sklep. Teoretični del disertacije vsebuje dve celoti. V prvem delu obravnavam osnovne pojme v slavistiki, ki se nanašajo na Slovane, njihova poimenovanja (etnonime) skozi zgodovino, prajezik, pradomovino, slovanske selitve, začetke slovanske pismenosti, staro cerkveno slovanščino. Namen tega dela je ustvariti pogled na obdobje pred nastankom in na pojav stare cerkvene slovanščine. V drugem delu teoretičnega dela se ukvarjam s pojavom najpomembnejšega vprašanja v slavistiki, ki se je oblikovalo na prehodu iz 18. v 19. stoletje in se nanaša na definiranje jezikovne osnove stare cerkvene slovanščine. Odgovor na to vprašanje se je oblikoval v obliki dveh teorij, panonske (panonsko-karantanske), ki sta jo zagovarjala Jernej Kopitar in Franc Miklošič, in makedonske teorije, ki sta jo zastopala Vatroslav Oblak in Vatroslav Jagić. Jernej Kopitar in pozneje Franc Miklošič sta zagovarjala teorijo, po kateri je bila osnova stare cerkvene slovanščine jezik panonskega območja, tj. jezik prednikov Slovencev. Jernej Kopitar je odkril veliko besed, ki so bile izposojenke iz latinskega in nemškega jezika (oc6t7, lat. acetum, ol7tar6, lat. Ataria, post7, nem. Fasta, pop7, nem. pfaffo). Domneval je, da naj bi bile te besede prisotne samo v slovanskem govoru, ki ga je govorilo prebivalstvo na območjih v bližini latinskega in nemškega jezika. Domnevo je dodatno podprl tudi z določenimi besedami, ki so bile prisotne v jeziku panonsko-moravskih Slovanov (balii, resnota, otok7, bratr7, rob7, pape'6). K tem argumentom je Franc Miklošič dodal še obstoj nosnikov (4, ѧ) in soglasniških skupin [t in 'd v madžarskem jeziku v izposojenkah slovanskega porekla (pentek madž. : pѧt7k7, szombota : s4bota; mozstoha, rozsda, Budapest), ki naj bi bile prevzete iz sosednjega slovanskega oziroma slovenskega jezika. Vatroslav Jagić in njegov učenec Vatroslav Oblak sta zastopala drugačno stališče. Oblak je ob koncu leta 1891 odšel na študijsko potovanje po južni Makedoniji, kjer je preučeval narečja solunske okolice. V narečju vasi Suho v okolici Soluna je našel jezikovne reflekse, ki so ozko povezani s staro cerkveno slovanščino. Po Vatroslavu Oblaku so najpomembnejše naslednje lastnosti: (1) razvoj ъ > o in ь > e kot v najstarejših slovanskih pisnih spomenikih, (2) ohranjanje nosnih vokalov 4 in ѧ, (3) ohranjena soglasniška sklopa [t in 'd kot v stari cerkveni slovanščini, (4) nerazlikovanje refleksov starih 5 = §. Končni rezultat je bila uveljavitev makedonske ali makedonsko-bolgarske teorije, ki temelji na dejstvu, da sta brata Ciril in Metod vzela za osnovo stare cerkvene slovanščine govore iz okolice Soluna, s čimer je zavrnil starejšo panonsko teorijo o poreklu stare cerkvene slovanščine. Razvidno je, da obe teoriji ponujata različna odgovora in imata enostransko stališče, ki ne vključuje sociolingvističnih okoliščin. V osnovi se zagovorniki panonske teorije sklicujejo na besedišče, medtem ko so v osnovi makedonske teorije zgodovinskoglasoslovni argumenti. V naslednjem poglavju sledi pregled pogledov na vprašanje o jezikovni osnovi stare cerkvene slovanščine pri slovenskih jezikoslovcih 20. stoletja, pri čemer izpostavljam poglede Martine Orožen, Alenke Šivic Dular, Vande Babič in Mateja Šeklija. Ugotavljam, da je Martina Orožen bolj naklonjena teoriji Jerneja Kopitarja in Franca Miklošiča kljub umirjenemu vseslovanskemu pogledu, ki ga zagovarja v enem od svojih člankov, medtem ko preostali trije obravnavajo jezikovno osnovo s stališča genetske lingvistike in za to uporabljajo zgodovinskoglasoslovne argumente, na podlagi katerih stari cerkveni slovanščini določajo južnoslovansko osnovo. V naslednjem poglavju s pomočjo genetolingvistične teorije Daliborja Brozovića ugotavljam, da je stara cerkvena slovanščina kot knjižni jezik najvišje postavljeni neorganski konkretni idiom, ki ima svojo organsko osnovo v obliki krajevnega govora. Neorganskost je bila dosežena s civilizacijskimi nadgradnjami, in sicer z vnosom grških elementov v južnoslovanskem prostoru in nato z vnosom velikomoravsko-panonskih elementov v velikomoravsko-panonskem prostoru. Empirični del doktorske disertacije vsebuje: (1) opis fonoloških baz suškega govora, (2) kratek opis oblikoslovne podobe suškega govora, (3) primerjalno analizo ključnih refleksov med lagadinsko-bogdanskimi govori, (4) primerjalno analizo refleksov za praslovanski skupini *tj in *dj med solunsko-vodenskimi in sersko-lagadinskimi južnimi makedonskimi govori, (5) analizo pojavnosti besedja zahodnega (moravsko-panonskega) izvora v kanonskih spomenikih stare cerkvene slovanščine in poznejših makedonskih spomenikih iz 12., 13., 14. in 15. stoletja. Obstoj soglasniških skupin št in žd in primerjalna analiza drugih refleksov v lagadinsko-bodanski skupini govorov je pokazala, da suški, visoški in zarovski govor tvorijo narečno oazo, ki hrani reflekse (ä, razvoj ъ > o in ь > e ter št in žd), medtem ko se v njihovih sosednjih govorih opažajo novejši refleksi (denazalizacijo, ekavski razvoj 5, ǵ in ḱ). Na podlagi opravljenih analiz sem potrdil, da je prvotna organska osnova stare cerkvene slovanščine najverjetneje solunski govor 9. stoletja z okolico, ki se je danes najbolj ohranil v govorih vasi Suho, Visoka in Zarovo. Zadnji del empiričnega dela ponuja analizo pojavnosti besedja zahodnega (moravsko-panonskega) izvora v kanonskih spomenikih stare cerkvene slovanščine in makedonskih spomenikih iz 12., 13., 14. in 15. stoletja. Analiza je potrdila prisotnost številnih velikomoravsko-panonskih besed v makedonskih spomenikih, ki so se v makedonska besedila vnašala po vrnitvi cirilometodovih učencev v makedonsko-bolgarski prostor. V sklepu ugotavljam, da z genetolingvističnim pogledom na jezikovno osnovo stare cerkvene slovanščine definiramo njeno organsko južnoslovansko ali natančneje solunsko osnovo. Z upoštevanjem velikomoravsko-panonskega besedišča predlagam širši pogled na oblikovanje stare cerkvene slovanščine, in sicer skozi prizmo zgodovinskih in sociolingvističnih okoliščin ter v njenem polnem obsegu, ki vključuje vse faze razvoja v času in prostoru. Na koncu doktorske disertacije je še priloga z izbranimi govorjenimi besedili iz vasi Suho.
Ključne besede:Slovani, stara cerkvena slovanščina, jezikovna osnova, genetolingvistična teorija, jugovzhodna makedonska narečna skupina, suški govor, velikomoravizmi, panonizmi, makedonski biblijski rokopisi
Leto izida:2016
Založnik:[G. Nikolovski]
Izvor:Maribor
UDK:811.163.1(043.3)
COBISS_ID:22668296 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:628
Število prenosov:101
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Področja:FF
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Skupna ocena:(0 glasov)
Vaša ocena:Ocenjevanje je dovoljeno samo prijavljenim uporabnikom.
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:The Linguistic Origin of the Old Church Slavonic
Opis:The doctoral dissertation titled The Linguistic Origin of the Old Church Slavonic is divided into three parts: introduction, theoretical and empirical part. The theoretical part of the dissertation comprises two units. In the first unit we discuss the basic notions in Slavonic studies which refer to the Slavs, their denominations (ethnonyms) throughout history, their protolanguage, their original homeland, the Slavic migrations, the beginnings of Slavic literacy, Old Church Slavonic. The purpose of this unit is to present an insight in the period before the origin of the Old Church Slavonic and on its occurrence. In the second unit of the theoretical part we deal with the occurrence of the most important question within the Slavonic studies, which was formulated at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century and which refers to the definition of the linguistic origin of the Old Church Slavonic. The answer to this question is presented in the form of two theories, the Pannonian (Pannonian-Carantanian) theory, defended by Jernej Kopitar and Franc Miklošič, and the Macedonian theory, proposed by Vatroslav Oblak and Vatroslav Jagić. Jernej Kopitar, followed by Franc Miklošič, both defended the theory in which the origin of the Old Church Slavonic stems from the Pannonian region, i.e. the language of the Slovenian ancestors. Jernej Kopitar discovered a number of words which were borrowed from Latin and German (oc6t7, lat. acetum, ol7tar6, lat. ataria; post7, Ger. Fasta, pop7, Ger. Pfaffo). He assumed that those were the words present only in the Slavic dialect, spoken by those inhabitants who occupied the area near where the Latin and German languages were spoken. He further supported his claim with certain words which were present in the language of the Pannonian-Moravian Slavs (balii, resnota, otok7, bratr7, rob7, pape'6). In addition to these arguments, Franc Miklošič added the notion of the existence of the nasalised vowels (4, ѧ) and consonant clusters [t and 'd in the Hungarian language in the borrowings of the Slavic origin (pentek Hung. : pѧt7k7, szombota : s4bota; mozstoha, rozsda, Budapest), supposedly borrowed from the neighbouring Slavic or Slovene language. Vatroslav Jagić and his student (protégé) Vatroslav Oblak defended a different point of view. At the end of 1891, Oblak embarked on a study trip around southern Macedonia, where he was studying the dialects of the Solun area. He discovered linguistic reflexes in the dialect of the Suho village near Solun, which are closely linked to Old Church Slavonic. According to Vatroslav Oblak, the following characteristics are of most importance: (1) the development of ъ > o and ь > e as one of the oldest Slavic manuscripts, (2) nasal articulation of the nasal vowel reflexes 4 and ѧ, (3) the preservation of the consonant clusters [t and 'd as in the Old Church Slavonic, (4) the lack of differentiation of the reflexes of the old 5 = §. The final result was the propogation of the Macedonian or the Macedonian-Bulgarian theory, which is based on the fact that the brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius considered the spoken dialects from the vicinity of Solun as the basis of the Old Church Slavonic, and with that, Oblak refuted the older Pannonian theory regarding the origin of the Old Church Slavonic. It can therefore be established that both theories offer different answers and assume a one-sided standpoint, which does not take sociolinguistic circumstances into account. The proponents of the Pannonian theory basically refer to the vocabulary, while the proponents of the Macedonian theory refer to the arguments of the historical phonetics and phonology. In the next chapter an overview of the questions regarding the linguistic origin of the Old Church Slavonic among Slovene linguists of the 20th century is presented, whereby we focus on the positions of Martina Orožen, Alenka Šivic Dular, Vanda Babič and Matej Šekli. We establish that Martina Orožen is more inclined towards the theory of Janez Kopitar and Franc Miklošič, despite a more restrained Pan-Slavic view, which she supports in one of her articles. The other three authors discuss the linguistic origin from the standpoint of genetic linguistics and support it with arguments from historical phonetics and phonology, assuming that Old Church Slavonic is based on Southern-Slavic foundations. In the next chapter we establish – based on the Genetic Linguistic theory of Dalibor Brozović – that the Old Church Slavonic as a literary language is the highest ranked inorganic concrete idiom with its own organic base in the form of the local dialect. This inorganic status was achieved through developments in civilization; that is by the incorporation of Greek elements into the Southern-Slavic area and later with the transfer of the Great Moravian-Pannonian elements within the Great Moravian-Pannonian territory. The empirical part of the doctoral dissertation consists of: (1) a description of the phonological bases of the Suho region dialect, (2) a short description of the morphological image of the Suho region dialect, (3) a comparative analysis of the key reflexes among the Lagadin-Bogdan dialects, (4) a comparative analysis of the reflexes for the Proto-Slavic clusters *tj and *dj among the Solun-Voden and Ser-Lagadin southern Macedonian dialects, (5) analysis of the occurrence of the vocabulary of the Western (Moravian-Pannonian) origin from the Canon manuscripts of the Old Church Slavonic and the later Macedonian manuscripts from the 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. The existence of the consonant clusters št and žd and the comparative analysis of other reflexes within the Lagadin-Bogdan group of dialects have showed us that the Suho region, Visoka region and Zarovo region dialects comprise a dialectal oasis, which preserves the reflexes (ä, development of ъ > o and ь > e, as well as št and žd), while the neighbouring dialects show examples of newer reflexes (denasalisation, the Ekavian development of 5, ǵ in ḱ). On the basis of the analyses we have come to a conclusion that the initial organic basis of the Old Church Slavonic is most likely the Solun dialect region and its vicinity from the 9th century, which is nowadays best preserved in the dialects of the villages of Suho, Visoka and Zarovo. The last part of the empirical part provides the analysis of the occurrence of the vocabulary of Western (Moravian-Pannonian) origin in the Canon manuscripts of the Old Church Slavonic and the Macedonian manuscripts from the 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. The analysis confirmed the presence of numerous Great Moravian-Pannonian words in the Macedonian manuscripts, which were incorporated into the Macedonian texts upon the return of the Saints Cyril and Methodius' students to the Macedonian-Bulgarian region. We can establish that with the Genetic Linguistic view of the linguistic origin of the Old Church Slavonic we can define its organic basis. By taking into account the Great Moravian-Pannonian vocabulary, we suggest a wider view of the formation of the Old Church Slavonic, that is to say through the prism of historical and sociolinguistic circumstances and in its full scope, which includes all phases of the development in time and space. At the end of the doctoral dissertation the list of literature (References) is presented, as well as Appendix with the selected spoken texts from the Solun village of Suho.
Ključne besede:Slavs, Old Church Slavonic, linguistic origin, Genetic Linguistic theory, Southeastern Macedonian dialect group, Suho dialect, Great Moravian words, Pannonian words, Macedonian Biblical manuscripts


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