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Title:Tripartitum opus iuris consuetudinarii inclyti regni Hungariae (Tripartit)
Authors:ID Berden, Mario (Author)
ID Holcman, Borut (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UN_Berden_Mario_2016.pdf (771,91 KB)
MD5: 904F5170DD085D69DC09F57FF2EE181E
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Undergraduate thesis
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Diplomsko nalogo z naslovom Tripartitum opus iuris consuetudinarii inclyti regni Hungariae, oziroma krajše Tripartit, obravnava in opisuje istoimensko zbirko madžarskega običajnega prava. Zbirka je nastala leta 1514, njen avtor pa je István Werbőczy, takrat protonotar na kraljevem dvoru Kraljevine Madžarske. Pred njenim nastankom je v Kraljevini Madžarski vladala velika pravna negotovost. Od nastanka madžarske države je takrat minilo že 5 stoletij, zato se je že izoblikovalo neko lastno pravo kraljevine. V večini pa je bilo to običajno pravo in le v majhni meri uzakonjeno pravo. To pravo je bilo precej nedoločljivo in ne sistematizirano, velikokrat pa je vsebovalo tudi nasprotujoča si določila. Problem je bil tudi ta, da sodiščem pravo ni bilo dostopno, pred iznajdbo tiska pa so bili zakonski teksti velikokrat tudi napačno prepisani, kaj je le še povečevalo pravno negotovost. Vse to je prisililo kralja Vladislava II Jageloviča, da je pooblastil Istvána Werbőczy za sestavo Tripartita. István Werbőczy se je rodil okoli leta 1459 v družini nižjih plemičev. Glede tega kje se je šolal pravni zgodovinarji niso enotni. Bil pa je zelo sposoben in hitro učljiv, polek madžarščine se je tekoče izražal tudi v latinskem, grškem in nemškem jeziku. Po zaključku šolanja je začel svojo poklicno pot v kraljevi službi Matije Korvina, kjer je bil vodja kraljeve pisarne. Leta 1502 ga kralj Vladislav II imenuje za protonotarja, namestnika kraljevega sodnika. Tedaj dobi tudi nalogo, da ob opravljanju funkcije, uredi in zbere v eno knjigo starodavne zakone madžarskega naroda, njihove pravne običaje in kraljeve dekrete. To delo dokonča leta 1514, Tripartit državni zbor sprejme, kralj pa ga potrdi in obljubi, da ga bo uzakonil. Zaradi nasprotovanja visokega plemstva, ki se je balo povečanja vpliva nižjega plemstva , kralj nanj nikoli ne odtisne svojega žiga in ga ne razpošlje županijam. To pa je pogoj, da bi Tripartit postal zakon, zakonik. Kajti višje plemstvo se je balo določb Tripartita, še posebej slavne »Primae nonus«, ki izvira in ima temelj v Zlati Buli iz leta 1222 in ruši meje med visokim in nižjim plemstvom. Kljub temu, da Tripartit ni postal zakon, ga je Werbőczy dal sam, nespremenjenega natisniti leta 1517 na Dunaju in ga sam razposlal županijam. V tem času je Werbőczy zasedal že funkcijo personala, ki je bila najvplivnejša sodniška funkcija na dvoru. Na državnem zboru leta 1525, pa Werbőczy doseže svoj politični in poklicni vrhunec, kajti le ta ga enoglasni izvoli za palatina, to pa potrdi tudi kralj. Iz napisanega vidimo kako je iz nižjega plemiča postal Werbőczy najvišji dostojanstvenik v državi, nad katerim je bil le kralj. Vendar pa je imela njegova kariera bliskovit konec, zaradi velikega nasprotovanja visokega plemstva, ga naslednje leto na državnem zboru razrešijo funkcije palatina. Po smrti kralja, ga novi kralj János I postavi za kancelarja. Ob zavzetju Bude s strani Turkov in ga ti imenujejo na ponižujočo funkcijo sodnika v Budi živečim, podrejenim Madžarom. Nekaj mesecev kasneje, leta 1541 umre. Umrlo pa ni njegovo delo Tripartit, ki so ga od izdaje leta 1517 sodišča, kot zbirko domačega običajnega prava, v pomanjkanju zakonikov, uporabljala, z njegovimi spremembami in modifikacijami vse do leta 1848. Nekatere dele pa celo do leta 1957, ko so sprejeli madžarski Civilni zakonik. Polek praktične uporabe, je imel velik pomen tudi zato, ker razen »primae nonus« vsebuje tudi »nauk o Sveti kroni« in s kombinacijo obeh je Werbőczy podal nekakšno pravno podlago za celovitost in neodvisnost madžarskega kraljestva. Tripartit pa je pomemben tudi za madžarsko pravno terminologijo. Negativen pomen pa ima predvsem zaradi tega, ker je zakoreninil in utrdil fevdalni sistem na Madžarskem.
Keywords:Tripartit, István Werbőczy, običajno pravo, Kraljevina Madžarska, zbirka običajnega prava
Place of publishing:Maribor
Publisher:[M. Berden]
Year of publishing:2016
PID:20.500.12556/DKUM-64156 New window
UDC:341.2(091)(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:5297707 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:PUT1VJ9N
Publication date in DKUM:18.11.2016
Views:1661
Downloads:90
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:PF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Tripartitum
Abstract:The thesis entitled Tripartitum opus iuris consuetudinarii inclyti regni Hungariae, shorter called Tripartitum, deals with and describes the eponymously called collection of Hungarian customary law. This collection was formed in 1514 by author István Werbőczy, then prothonotary at the royal court of the Kingdom of Hungary. Prior to its formation, the Kingdom of Hungary was ruled by a significant legal uncertainty. Since the formation of the Hungarian state, five centuries have passed, so some kind of a private law has already been established, but it was mostly customary and it was codified only to a small extent. This law was quite undefinable, disorganized, and many times it also contained conflicting provisions. There was also a problem of the courts’ inaccessibility to this law, prior to the invention of the press the legal texts were also often incorrectly transcribed, which only increased the legal uncertainty. All of this has forced King Vladislaus II to authorize István Werbőczy to compose the Tripartitum. István Werbőczy was born around the year 1459 in a family of lower nobility. On where he studied, the legal historians do not agree with each other. He was a very capable man and he learned fast. Besides the Hungarian language, he also spoke Latin, Greek and German. After finishing school, he began his career in the service of King Matthias Corvinus, where he was the head of the royal office. In the year 1502 King Vladislaus II appointed him as the prothonotary, the deputy of the royal judge. He was trusted with the task, that while he carried out his functions, he edited and compiled into a book all of the ancient laws of the Hungarian nation, their legal traditions and royal decrees. He finishes this work in the year 1514. Tripartitum gets accepted by the national assembly, and the King confirmed and promised, that it will be enacted. Even thought, due to the opposition of the high nobility, who feared an increase in the impact of the lower nobility, the King never stamped his seal on it and it never got distributed to the parishes. This was a condition that the Tripartitum would become law, the code, but it did not happen so, for the higher nobility feared Tripartitums provisions, especially the famous "primae nonuse", which originates and its foundation is based in the Golden Bull from the year 1222, which breaks the boundaries between higher and lower nobility. Despite the fact that the Tripartitum did not become law, Werbőczy himself got the unchanged version printed in 1517 in Vienna, and he himself distributed it to the parishes. During this time Werbőczy already held the function of chief justice, which was the most influential judicial function in the court. At the national assembly in 1525 Werbőczy achieves the pinnacle of his political and professional career, when he gets elected as a palatine, the vote also got acknowledged by the King. From his story we see how Werbőczy got from being a member of the lower nobility, all the way to the highest dignitary in the country, over whom only the King ruled. However, his career ended in a flash, because by next year, at the national assembly, because of the large opposition in high nobility, they resolved him of his function as palatine. After the death of the King, the new King János I puts him in the position of a chancellor. When Buda was conquered by the Turks, they appointed him to a degrading function to judge the Hungarian subsidiary residents of Buda. A few months later, in 1541 he died. His work, the Tripartitum, survived. From its release in 1517, in the absence of codes, it was used by the courts as a collection of local customary law, with his amendments and modifications, all the way until 1848. Some parts were even used until 1957, when they accepted the Hungarian civil code.
Keywords:Tripartitum, István Werbőczy, customary law, Kingdom of Hungary, collection of Hungarian customary law


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