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Izpis gradiva

Naslov:EMANCIPACIJA OTROKA
Avtorji:Šedivy, Maja (Avtor)
Kraljić, Suzana (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Datoteke:.pdf UN_Sedivy_Maja_2016.pdf (1,12 MB)
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Diplomsko delo (m5)
Tipologija:2.11 - Diplomsko delo
Organizacija:PF - Pravna fakulteta
Opis:Emancipacija otroka je zapleten in večplasten pojem, ki je na različnih področjih predvsem s pravnega vidika različno obravnavan. V tem kontekstu je poglavitnega pomena spoznanje, da so se koncepti dojemanja otroka in otroštva skozi zgodovino močno spreminjali. Pojmovanja otroštva kot posebne ter posebej občutljive faze v razvoju človeka v Stari Grčiji, Rimu ter v Srednjem veku niso poznali. Pridobivanje določene stopnje svojepravnosti je bila odvisna zlasti od služenja vojaškega roka, starosti, poroke (ali zakonskega stanu?) in očetove oblasti, pri čemer pa so bili favorizirani dečki. Ideje, da si otrok zasluži posebno varstvo, so se pojavile v obdobju industrializacije in takrat so nastale prve kodifikacije o otrokovih pravicah. Vendar pa je vse do sprejetja Konvencije o otrokovih pravicah leta 1989 veljalo stališče, da gre za varstvo otrok, ne pa tudi za njihove pravice. Od tedaj se smatra, da je otrok subjekt pravic in v tem kontekstu se razlagajo tudi vse njegove pravice in pojmi, kot je pojem največje otrokove koristi. Opozoriti je treba tudi na neenak položaj otrok po svetu in pojave, ki predstavljajo neposredno kršitev otrokovih pravic. Še zmeraj je zelo razširjeno otroško delo, kompleksnost problema pa se kaže zlasti v dejstvu, da absolutna prepoved otroškega dela ne pomeni nujno tudi boljšega položaja za otroke. V prvi vrsti je pomembna ureditev razmerij med starši in otrokom. Pri tem je splošno sprejeto stališče, da je primarna vloga staršev skrb za otrokovo korist. To skrb pa morajo prilagajati otrokovi zrelosti in starosti. V primeru nadstarševstva je skrb pogosto pretirana in lahko posega v otrokove pravice, zlasti v njegovo zasebnost. Popolna poslovna sposobnost se pridobi praviloma z 18., delna pa s 15. letom starosti. Do takrat starši oziroma skrbniki sprejemajo odločitve glede otroka glede na to, koliko je star ali zrel. Vendar pa je treba zagotoviti, da ima otrok, ki je sposoben izoblikovati lastno mnenje, pravico do svobodnega izražanja le-tega v vseh zadevah v zvezi z njim. Na tak način se recimo tretira sodelovanje otroka v sodnih postopkih. Tudi pri privolitvi v medicinski poseg se otrokova volja upošteva v največjem možnem obsegu, vselej pa se pazi na otrokovo neposredno korist. S tega vidika je zlasti sporno obrezovanje iz razlogov, ki niso medicinski. Nujna medicinska pomoč pa se otroku mora zagotoviti, tudi če jo starši iz verskih razlogov odklanjajo. V kolikor torej starši otrokove koristi ne varujejo na najboljši možni način, posreduje država. Še en primer, ko je poseg države v starševske pravice utemeljen in upravičen, je obvezno izobraževanje, saj predstavlja neposredno otrokovo korist. Še večji poseg v avtonomijo volje otroka je zaznati pri privolitveni sposobnosti otroka v spolne dejavnosti. V zvezi z varovanjem otrokove koristi je bila v zakonodaji določena starostna meja, pri kateri lahko otrok svobodno privoli v spolno dejanje. V Evropi je to povprečno pri 15. letih. Manj dosledna in zaščitniška je zakonodaja na področju zagotavljanja spolne identitete transspolnim otrokom. V večini držav sta namreč za pravno priznanje spola še vedno potrebna določena diagnoza ali celo poseg. Na koncu ugotavljamo, da imajo starši pravico vzgajati svoje otroke v skladu s svojim verskim prepričanjem. Otrok lahko z dopolnitvijo določene starosti (15 let v naši državi) sam sprejema odločitve, povezane z versko svobodo, vendar pa je v zvezi s tem posebej sporen krst dojenčkov, ki predstavlja doživljenjsko včlenitev v vero oz. cerkev in potemtakem zaznamuje otroka za vse življenje.
Ključne besede:emancipacija otroka, otrokove pravice, otrokova korist, roditeljska pravica, nadstarševstvo, poslovna sposobnost, procesna sposobnost, privolitvena sposobnost, otroško delo, obvezno šolanje, obrezovanje, transspolni otroci, verska vzgoja
Leto izida:2016
Založnik:[M. Šedivy]
Izvor:Maribor
UDK:316.423.6(043.2)
COBISS_ID:5295147 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:OMFTUCGX
Število ogledov:562
Število prenosov:63
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Področja:PF
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:EMANCIPATION OF THE CHILD
Opis:The emancipation of the child is a complex and multifaceted concept, which reflects differently in various areas, especially from a legal perspective. In this context, the realization that the concepts of perception of children and childhood greatly changed throughout history is of crucial importance. The concept of childhood as a separate and especially sensitive period in a human being development was not yet familiar in ancient Greece, Rome, and during the Middle Ages. Obtaining a certain level of svojepravnost (the right to self-representation mogoče?) was dependent particularly on military service, age, marriage (ali bi blo boljše marital status?) and patriarchal authority, whereby the boys were favoured. The ideas about the fact, that children deserve special protection, emerged in the period of industrialization which is when the first codifications of the children's rights were introduced. However, until the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989, only the protection of children was considered, but not their rights as well. Ever since then, the child is considered to be the subject of its own rights and it is in this context that all its rights and concepts, such as the concept of child's best interest, are interpreted as well. Attention should also be drawn to the unequal situation of children around the world and to the phenomena, which are a direct violation of children's rights. Child labour is still widespread and the complexity of the problem is reflected particularly in the fact that the absolute prohibition of child labour does not necessarily indicate that the children's situation has improved. Regulating the relations between parents and children is of most importance. It is generally accepted that the primary role of parents is to provide an adequate care for their child and to ensure its best interests. They should, however, adjust their care to the child's maturity and age. In the case of »uber-parenting«? the care is often exaggerated and could interfere with the child's rights, especially with its privacy. The full legal capacity is acquired at the age of 18, and the limited legal capacity at the age of 15. Until then, parents or guardians make the decisions regarding the child, depending on its age and maturity. It should be ensured, however, that the child who is capable of forming his own opinion, has the right to freely express it in all matters concerning him. The child's involvement in legal proceedings is treated in this way, for example. Also, when a consent to medical treatment is needed, the child's will is taken into account to the greatest extent possible, whereas the child's best interest/welfare is always taken into consideration. From this point of view, the practice of circumcision is particularly controversial for reasons other than medical. Urgent medical treatment, however, must be ensured to the child, even if the parents refuse it for religious reasons. If the child's interests are not protected by their parents in the best possible way, the country intervenes. Another example, when the State intervention into the parental rights is justified and reasonable, is compulsory education which represents a direct child's best interest. An even greater encroachment upon children's autonomy can be detected regarding the child's capacity to consent to sexual activity. In relation to the welfare of children, the age limit at which children can freely consent to sexual activity, was set in legislation. In Europe, the average is at 15 years of age. Less consistent and protective is the legislation in the field of providing gender identity to transgender children. In most countries, a certain diagnosis or even treatment are still required for the legal recognition of sex. In the end, we find that parents have the right to educate their children in conformity with their own religious convicitons. The child can make its own decisions related to religious freedom when reachin
Ključne besede:emancipation of the child, child rights, the best interest of the child, parent rights, overparenting, capacity, age of consent, processing capacity, capacity to consent, child labour, compulsory education, circumcision, transgender children, religious education


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