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Title:SLOVENSKA BISTRICA V SREDNJEM VEKU
Authors:Mlakar, Amadeja (Author)
Ravnikar, Anton (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UN_Mlakar_Amadeja_2016.pdf (1,30 MB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:FF - Faculty of Arts
Abstract:Slovenska Bistrica leži na južnih obronkih Pohorja, neposredno ob vozlišču cest proti Ptuju, Mariboru in Celju. Nastala je iz štirih topografskih enot: cerkvenega kompleksa, dvora Bistrica, tržne naselbine in vasi Gradišče, ki je bilo tudi prvo jedro sedanje Slovenske Bistrice. Gradišče z bližnjo okolico je leta 1227 pridobilo trške pravice, leta 1310 pa je bilo povzdignjeno v mesto. Slovenska Bistrica se je v srednjem veku imenovala samo Bistrica (»Feistritz«), šele v 16. stoletju se je pojavilo ime Slovenska Bistrica (»Windischfeistritz«) za ločevanje od kraja Nemška Bistrica (»Deutschfeistritz«) pri Gradcu. V 15. stoletju je bila Bistrica neposredno vpletena v spopade med Habsburžani in Walseeji, v sedemletno celjsko-habsburško vojno, leta 1446 so Bistrico napadli Ogri, proti koncu 15. stoletja, v letih 1472, 1477, 1493 in 1494, pa so se pred Bistrico in v njeni bližnji okolici začeli pojavljati Turki. Za obrambo je mesto imelo zgrajeno utrjeno obzidje in stolpe, ki so služili tudi kot bivališče za mestne gospode. Grad ni imel pomembnega strateškega položaja, krepil se je le zaradi varnosti kot del obrambnega sistema mesta. Slovenska Bistrica je v srednjem veku bila del Slivniške pražupnije. Cerkev sv. Jerneja je bila zgrajena okoli leta 1200. Leta 1379 se v listinah prvič omenja kapela Naše ljube gospe, ki je bila predhodnica sedanje mestne Marijine cerkve. V Slovenski Bistrici so se okoli leta 1370 začeli pojavljati Judje, ki so kmalu ustanovili svojo skupnost, saj se v letih 1374 in 1441 v virih omenja judovsko pokopališče. Slovenska Bistrica se je v srednjem veku vseskozi zapletala v spore z mestoma Maribor in Ptuj za svoboden prevoz vina. Leta 1342 je bil sklenjen trgovinski sporazum med Slovensko Bistrico in Ptujem, ki je bistriškim meščanom omogočal udeležbo na ptujski tedenski tržnici. Trgovci v Slovenski Bistrici v virih niso omenjeni, najpogostejši obrtniki pa so bili mlinarji, peki, usnjarji, čevljarji, mesarji, zidarji, krojači, lončarji, kovači, ulivalci zvonov in steklarji.
Keywords:Slovenska Bistrica, srednji vek, mestni sodniki, mestni gospodje, pečat, stolp, obzidje, grad, cerkev, Judje, trgovina, obrt, prevoz vina.
Year of publishing:2016
Publisher:[A. Mlakar]
Source:Maribor
UDC:94:634.8(497.4Slovenska Bistrica)(043.2)
COBISS_ID:22703112 Link is opened in a new window
Views:811
Downloads:106
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Categories:FF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:SLOVENSKA BISTRICA IN THE MIDDLE AGES
Abstract:Slovenska Bistrica is set on the southern outskirts of Pohorje directly next to the road intersection to Ptuj, Maribor and Celje. It was formed from four topographic units: a church complex, the court Bistrica, a square settlement and the village Gradišče, which was also the first centre of current Slovenska Bistrica. Gradišče and his surrounding area obtained the rights of a square in 1227, which were then elevated into town rights in 1310. In medieval times Slovenska Bistrica was called only Bistrica (Germ. Feistritz), but it was in the 16th century when the name Slovenska Bistrica (Windischfeistritz) appeared only to separate itself from Nemška Bistrica (Deutschfeistritz) near Graz. In the 15th century Bistrica was directly involved in combats between the Habsburgs and Walsees, a seven year long Celje-Habsburg war. In 1446 Bistrca was attacked by the Hungarians, and at the end of the 15th century, in years 1472, 1477, 1493 and 1494, Turks started to appear in Bistrica and its vicinity. For defence puropses the town had fortified ramparts and towers that served as town's nobility residence as well. The castle had no strategic importance, it was only strengthened for town's safety, as a part of its defence system. Medieval Slovenska Bistrica was a part of Slivnica parish. The Cerkev sv. Jerneja (Saint Bartholomew Church) was built around year 1200. In 1379 the Kapela Naše ljube gospe (Chapel of Our Dear Lady), the predecessor of today's Marijina cerkev (Mary's Church), was first mentioned in documents. Jews started to appear in Slovenska Bistrica around 1370. They have soon founded their community, as documents mention a jewish graveyard in years 1374 and 1441. Medieval Slovenska Bistrica was constantly involved in disputes with towns of Maribor and Ptuj for free wine transport. In 1342 a trade agreement between Slovenska Bistrica and Ptuj was reached. It enabled the people of Bistrica to participate in Ptuj's weekly market. Documents do not mention traders in Slovenska Bistrica. Most common tradesmen were millers, bakers, tanners, shoemakers, butchers, bricklayers, tailors, potters, blacksmiths, bell pourers and glassmakers.
Keywords:Slovenska Bistrica, middle ages, town judges, town's nobility, seal, tower, ramparts, castle, church, Jews, commerce, trade, wine transport.


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