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Naslov:(Ne)legitimnost 'teokratske' oblasti v Savdski Arabiji
Avtorji:Goršek, Polona (Avtor)
Klampfer, Friderik (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Potočnik, Dragan (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Datoteke:.pdf UN_Gorsek_Polona_2016.pdf (636,58 KB)
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Diplomsko delo (m5)
Tipologija:2.11 - Diplomsko delo
Organizacija:FF - Filozofska fakulteta
Opis:Islam je najmlajša monoteistična religija, ki daje bistven povdarek politični dimenziji človekovega bivanja, katerega cilj definira v realizaciji pravične družbe. Politični ideal islama predstavlja zgodnja skupnost muslimanov, ki je uresničevala demokratične metode vladanja in tolerantnost. Večji del zgodovine je bila islamska skupnost mogočen imperij, ki se je sicer odmaknil od ideala, v njem pa je cvetela znanost, kultura in umetnost. Notranja stagnacija in tuji vdori so povzročili postopen razpad enotne islamske države, ki je sovpadal z imperialno nadvlado evropskih velesil. Moderne države, ki so nastale večinoma iz britanskih in francoskih kolonij, so sledile zahodnemu vzoru, kar je pomenilo sekularizacijo muslimanske družbe in izrinjanje islama iz javnega življenja. Zaradi gospodarskih neuspehov, politične avtoritarnosti in tuje okupacije muslimanskih ozemelj, so sekularni režimi začeli izgubljati legitimnost, začel pa se je vzpon islamizma oz. političnega islama, katerega cilj je bila islamska država, v kateri bo realizirana socialna in ekonomska pravičnost. Islamska etika je egalitarna in si prizadeva za univerzalnost vrednot. Velik povdarek daje socialni pravičnosti, ki jo do neke mere razume podobno kot sodobni liberalizem, kot ga je artikuliral John Rawls v svoji teoriji liberalnega egalitarizma, ki temelji na ideji pravičnih deležev družbenih dobrin. Islamski svet je postal v obdobju imperializma bistveno vpet v globalni ekonomski sistem, pri čemer je postajalo vse bolj očitno, da je interes Zahoda predvsem izkoriščati njegove vire. Tako islam kot liberalizem vodita proti globalni pravičnosti in kot taka nasprotujeta interesom kapitala, ki vse bolj obvladujejo globalne odnose. Savdska Arabija je imela specifičen razvoj, saj ni nikoli postala kolonija. Od razglasitve kraljevine 1932 je na oblasti družina Savd, ki je zavladala z vojaško osvojitvijo Arabskega polotoka, ki jo je omogočilo fundamentalistično religiozno gibanje vahabizem in finančna podpora Velike Britanje med prvo svetovno vojno. Vahabizem zagotavlja legitimnost njihove oblasti, ki temelji na uveljavljanju islamskega zakona, kot ga interpretirajo vahabistični religiozni učenjaki. Kot zaščitniki svetih mest islama Meke in Medine so si Savdi prizadevali za vodstvo v muslimanskem svetu, pri čemer so promovirali panislamizem in se borili proti vsem ostalim gibanjem, sekularnim ali religioznim. Poleg tega so po drugi svetovni vojni postali tradicionalni zaveznik ZDA, ta odnos pa temelji na zagotavljanju nafte v zameno za obrambo. Zaradi ameriške podpore Izraelu, ki je največji sovražnik Arabcev, je Savdska Arabija v veliki meri izgubila kredibilnost v muslimanskem svetu. Znašla se je v dokaj protislovnem položaju, saj je na eni strani zaščitnica svetih mest in center sunističnega islama, na drugi pa glavni zaveznik in podpornik interesov velekapitala, ki so popolnoma nasprotni islamski etiki in politični teorji. Njen največji tekmec je postal šiitski Iran, ki je z revolucijo 1979 realiziral islamsko državo, eliminiral zahodni nadzor nad svojimi naftnimi viri in postal najhujši kritik Savdov. Savdi svojo oblast vzdržujejo z represijo in zatiranjem opozicije. Vahabizem se je v resnici izkazal predvsem kot sredstvo legitimizacije avtokratske politične moči. Savdski režim trdi, da vlada v skladu z islamom, vendar je ohranil samo islamsko retoriko in zunanji videz, ki ga zaznamujejo predvsem javna obglavljanja in izključitev žensk iz javne sfere. Politika je v celoti v rokah vladajoče dinastije, religiozna vahabistična elita pa je obdržala vpliv zgolj nad socialno sfero življenja, ki jo zaznamuje dogmatizem in diskriminacija, kar je v popolnem nasprotju z egalitarno islamsko etiko.
Ključne besede:Savdska Arabija, islam, Arabci, islamsko pravo, liberalizem, človekove pravice
Leto izida:2016
Založnik:[P. Goršek]
Izvor:Maribor
UDK:94(532):28(043.2)
COBISS_ID:22669064 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:551
Število prenosov:60
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:(Non)legitimacy of 'theocratic' goverment in Saudi Arabia
Opis:Islam is the youngest monotheistic religion, which gives essential emphasis on a political dimension of human existence, the goal of which defines in realisation of fair society. Political ideal of Islam is represented by early community of Muslims that actualized democratic methods of governing and toleration. In the major part of the history, the Islamic community was a powerful empire, which otherwise moved away from the ideal, but in which science, culture, and art flourished. Internal stagnation and foreign invasions caused gradual disintegration of the unified Islamic state that coincided with imperial hegemony of European superpowers. Modern countries that arose mainly from British and French colonies, followed Western model, which meant secularisation of Muslim society and pushing Islam out of the public life. Due to the economic failures, political authoritarianism, and foreign occupation of Muslim territories, the secular regimes began to lose legitimacy, and the rise of Islamism or political Islam began, the goal of which was Islamic state in which social and economic justice will be realized. Islamic ethics is egalitarian and strives for universality of values. It puts a large emphasis on social justice, which is to some extent understood similarly as in modern liberalism as it was articulated by John Rawls in his theory of liberal egalitarianism, which is based on fair shares of society goods. In the period of imperialism, the Islamic world became significantly embedded in global economic system, where it became increasingly evident that the interest of the West is particularly to exploit its resources. Islam, as well as liberalism lead toward global justice and as such oppose the interests of capital that increasingly dominate global relations. Saudi Arabia had a specific development, since it never became a colony. Since the declaration of monarchy in 1932, the ruling power is family Saud, which came to power by military conquest of the Arab Peninsula that was enabled by fundamentalist religious movement Wahhabi Islam, and financial support of Great Britain during the World War One. The Wahhabi Islam ensures legitimacy of their power that is based on enforcement of the Islamic law as it is interpreted by Wahhabi religious scholars. As protectors of the holy cities Meka and Medina, the Sauds strived for leadership in the Muslim world, promoted Panislam, and fought against all other movements, secular and religious. In addition to that, after the World War Two, they became a traditional ally of the USA, and this relationship is based on provision of oil in exchange for defence. Due to the American support to Israel, which is the biggest enemy of the Arabs, Saudi Arabia to the great extent lost credibility in the Muslim world. It found itself in rather contradictory position, since on one hand it is a protector of the holy cities and the centre of Sunni Islam, and on the other hand it is a main ally and supporter of large capitalist interests, which is completely contradictory to the Islamic ethics and political theory. Its biggest rival became Shiite Iran, which realised Islamic state with revolution in 1979, it eliminated Western control over its oil sources, and became the worst critic of the Sauds. The Sauds maintain their power with repression and oppression of the opposition. The Wahhabi Islam in reality proved to be mainly a means of legitimation of autocratic political power. The Saudi regime claims that it governs in accordance with Islam, but it only preserved Islamic rhetoric and external appearance, and it is mainly characterised by public beheading and exclusion of women from public sphere. Policy is entirely in hands of the governing dynasty, and the religious Wahhabi elite maintained influence only over a social sphere of life, which is characterized by dogmatism and discrimination, which is totally in contrast to the egalitarian Islamic ethics.
Ključne besede:Saudi Arabia, Islam, Arabs, Islamic Law, Liberalism, Human Rights


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