|Opis:||The overview and analysis of accidents in companies show that in most instances the human factor is the main reason for an accident, a health issue or a dangerous occurrence. The human factor, i.e. incorrect behaviour and actions in a concrete situation, can result from ignorance, inexperience, wrong information, beliefs, testing one's own abilities, avoiding routine, seeking new solutions or being forced into something at a certain moment due to poor safety culture in the company. Important human errors or the human factor are normally examined after such an event, a dangerous occurrence or accident at work (reactive response).
Reactive response in the companies in question was transformed into a proactive response system. Innovative occupational safety and health systems were implemented in addition to new permanent models of safety culture involving certain principles of ergonomics. The goal of the companies was to achieve a long-term sustainable change in behaviour in the area of safety at all levels from leadership to field service. The next step was to engage all employees in building an effective occupational safety and health system and a permanent safety culture.
The research and analysis were based on a survey questionnaire distributed among 507 employees from 13 companies. The statistical analysis focused on their safety culture and implemented principles of ergonomics. The data was also used to test the set hypotheses.
The analysis showed that the human factor is the main reason for accidents. Moreover, it transpired that accidents do not depend only on the level of competence or awareness, the occupational safety and health system that is in place, safety culture, good working conditions and ergonomic aspects – they are also connected to an unfortunate turn of events and may happen to anyone. The results proved that employees working in companies with a low safety index and poor safety culture and employees lacking safety values and knowledge of the principles of ergonomics are involved in accidents more often.
Employees also differ in the safety index, meaning that a group with a low safety index experiences the highest proportion of accidents and lacks the ability to detect incidents/dangerous events. To this end, every company should strive to ensure progress of its employees to a group with a better ratio. If the companies choose to take the analysis results into account, constantly provide motivation, training and information, promote understanding, awareness and observance of rules and procedures, and build trust in reporting, they will actually improve the occupational safety and health of their employees.
To conclude, the model of permanent implementation with the principles of ergonomics is the right approach to enhancing occupational safety and health. The model must be put into practice and its effects must be monitored constantly because they are the foundation for further improvement and development.|