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Title:SUPERKONDENZATOR IN ENERGIJSKA IZKORIŠČENOST BATERIJSKO NAPAJANIH VOZIL
Authors:Španer, Marijan (Author)
Jezernik, Karel (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf DOK_Spaner_Marijan_2016.pdf (7,78 MB)
MD5: 38F0FD82D52E06FA4E29AC2508AB70B6
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Dissertation (m)
Typology:2.08 - Doctoral Dissertation
Organization:FERI - Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Abstract:Disertacija obravnava možnosti za izboljšanje izkoriščenosti shranjene električne energije iz akumulatorske baterije pri električnem vozilu. Visoke dinamične obremenitve, ki nastajajo med vožnjo vozila so neugodne tako za stopnjo izkoriščenosti shranjene energije kot tudi za življenjsko dobo akumulatorske baterije. Predlagan je koncept hibridnega hranilnika energije, pri katerem enota s superkondenzatorjem prevzame dinamični del obremenitve, ob tem akumulatorska baterija pokriva le srednjo vrednost obremenitve, s tem pa deluje v zanjo optimalnih pogojih. V sklopu naloge je podana celovita obravnava na osnovi spremljanja pretoka energije od akumulatorske baterije preko pogonskega sklopa električnega vozila do razmer pri vožnji vozila. Izhodišče za določitev zahtev zmogljivosti hranilnika električne energije je bila izvedba natančne analize vožnje električnega vozila po dinamičnih voznih ciklih. Z analitičnim načrtovanjem, osnovanim na matematičnem modelu, so izpostavljene nekatere lastnosti kemičnih akumulatorskih baterij, predvsem sprememba parametrov v različnih stopnjah napolnjenosti in nelinearna odvisnost pretvorbe shranjene energije. Narejen je sistematski pregled vseh možnih konfiguracij kombiniranih hranilnikov električne energije, podrobneje pa je opisana in utemeljena odločitev za predlagani aktivni hibridni hranilnik. Pri opisani konfiguraciji sta superkondenzator in akumulatorska baterija na skupno enosmerno zbiralko glavnega pogona vozila priključena ločeno, vsak s svojim dvosmernim močnostnim pretvornikom. Kot napredni koncept vodenja pretoka energije med različnimi napetostnimi nivoji obeh hranilnikov energije na eni strani in skupne enosmerne zbiralke na drugi strani je uporabljen regulator količine energije na skupni enosmerni zbiralki. Končna potrditev koncepta temelji na dolgotrajnem primerjalnem obremenilnem testu kombiniranega hranilnika v primerjavi s samo akumulatorsko baterijo. S ciljem zagotovitve kar največje mere verodostojnosti eksperimenta so bile vse meritve izvedene z realno akumulatorsko baterijo iz komercialnega električnega vozila; prav tako so bili tudi obremenilni testi določeni na osnovi realnih podatkov istega vozila. Na laboratorijskem preizkuševališču motornih pogonov se je izvajal dolgotrajni test po programu ponavljajočega se voznega cikla ECE-15, ki je za hranilnik energije predstavljal obremenitev, identično vožnji vozila v realnih razmerah. Večurni obremenilni test se je izvajal od stanja povsem napolnjene do stanja povsem izpraznjene baterije, oziroma do meje dopustne izpraznitve. Rezultati primerjalnih testiranj potrjujejo prednosti kombiniranega hranilnika električne energije pred baterijo. Bistvena prednost kombiniranega hranilnika je zajeta v daljšem dosegu vožnje električnega vozila z enim samim polnjenjem; z veliko mero gotovosti se pričakuje tudi podaljšanje življenjske dobe akumulatorske baterije.
Keywords:Električno vozilo, energijski tok, akumulatorska baterija, superkondenzator, dvosmerni DC/DC pretvornik, vozni cikel, hibridni hranilnik energije
Year of publishing:2016
Publisher:[M. Španer]
Source:Maribor
UDC:621.319.4:681.586(043.3)
COBISS_ID:19860758 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:XIPLVI8P
Views:1459
Downloads:85
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:KTFMB - FERI
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Supercapacitor and Energy Efficiency of Battery Powered Vehicles
Abstract:This thesis deals with the possibilities for improving the utilization of electrical energy stored in the battery of an electric vehicle. Highly dynamic load profile which occurs during driving of the vehicle has negative effects on the utilization of the stored energy as well as on battery life. In the proposed hybrid energy storage concept, the supercapacitor supports the dynamic part of the load, while the battery only covers the mean value of the load power demand. Consequently, the battery operates in optimal conditions at all times. With the purpose of determining the required energy storage capacity, a comprehensive analysis of the energy flow from the battery through the electric vehicle powertrain system has been carried out. The utilized analytical design method, which is based on a mathematical model, exposes some of the properties of chemical batteries, particularly a change of parameters in various stages of charge and non-linear dependence of the conversion of stored energy. A systematic examination of different hybrid storage unit configurations was performed, in order to justify the decision for the proposed active hybrid storage unit. The proposed configuration combines a supercapacitor and a battery connected to a common DC bus. Each energy storage unit within the system is connected to the DC bus through its own bi-directional power converter. An advanced management concept of energy flow between the different voltage levels of both energy reservoirs on one side and a common DC bus on the other hand, is used, based on control of amount of DC bus energy. A DC bus energy control was designed for managing the energy flow between the energy storage units’ voltage level on one side and the DC bus of the powertrain system on the other side. The proposed concept was verified by long-term comparative tests, in which the hybrid storage unit was compared to a conventional battery storage unit. The tests were carried out on a laboratory test rig according with the ECE-15 driving cycle. The hybrid storage unit tests were performed from fully charged storage unit to its complete discharge. The long-term experimental test results have confirmed the advantages of the proposed hybrid storage unit system over a conventional battery. The main advantageous features are longer achievable driving range with fully charged energy storage unit and a longer expected lifetime of the battery.
Keywords:Electric Vehicle, Energy Flow, Battery, Supercapacitor, Bi-directional Power Converter, Driving Cycle, Hybrid Energy Storage Unit.


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