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Naslov:ODGOVORNOST SODELUJOČIH OSEB PRI PREVOZU TOVORA
Avtorji:Radolič, Borut (Avtor)
Kranjc, Vesna (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Datoteke:.pdf MAG_Radolic_Borut_2016.pdf (960,56 KB)
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Magistrsko delo (m2)
Tipologija:2.09 - Magistrsko delo
Organizacija:PF - Pravna fakulteta
Opis:Magistrsko delo obravnava različne oblike sodelovanja oseb pri prevozu tovora, upoštevajoč slovensko ureditev in ureditev v mednarodnih konvencijah. V nalogi je postavljena osnovna delitev oblik sodelovanja več oseb pri prevozu na podlagi prevoznega sredstva oziroma prevozne panoge, v okviru katere se takšen prevoz opravlja. Pri sodelovanju več oseb v okviru iste prevozne panoge je obravnavan podprevoz in zaporedni prevoz. Ključni razmejitveni kriterij razlikovanja med posameznimi oblikami sodelovanja prevoznikov iste prevozne panoge je v načinu nastanka pravnega razmerja in obstoju pogodbene volje pošiljatelja oziroma naročnika prevoza, da prevoz opravi več prevoznikov. Pri podprevozu ne nastane pogodbeno razmerje med podprevoznikom in pošiljateljem, saj le-ta ne prevzame tovornega lista. Bistvena značilnost zaporednega prevoza je v tem, da prevoznik, ki zaupa prevoz drugemu prevozniku, le-temu tudi izroči tovorni list. Posledica takšne izročitve tovornega lista je, da s sprejemom tovornega lista in pošiljke novi prevoznik vstopi v pravno razmerje med prevoznikom in pošiljateljem in s tem postane stranka osnovne prevozne pogodbe. Zaporedni prevoz je obravnavan v okviru posamezne prevozne panoge, pri tem pa so izpostavljene tudi ključne razlike glede na mednarodno ureditev. Na področju sodelovanja več prevoznikov iz različnih prevoznih panog so v nalogi obdelani pojmi kombiniranega oziroma mešanega prevoza ter multimodalnega prevoza. Pri kombiniranem ali mešanem prevozu sodelujejo prevozniki iz različnih prevoznih panog, odgovornost prevoznikov pa je urejena po principu mrežaste odgovornosti. Navedeno predstavlja tudi ključno razliko v primerjavi z multimodalnim prevozom, pri katerem sicer tudi sodelujejo prevozniki iz različnih prometnih panog, vendar pa za celoten prevoz odgovarja podjemnik multimodalnga prevoza po principu enotne odgovornosti. Prav preučevanje odgovornosti prevoznika v okviru posamezne prevozne panoge in uporaba teh pravil v primeru sodelovanja več prevoznikov pri prevozu pa predstavlja ključni del magistrske naloge. Odgovornost prevoznika je urejena po pravilih objektivne odgovornosti, razen za področje pomorskega prava, kjer velja ureditev po pravilih subjektivne odgovornosti z obrnjenim dokaznim bremenom. V nalogi so obravnavane tudi razlike med ureditvijo v nacionalni zakonodaji in mednarodnih konvencijah. Pri ureditvi odgovornosti v primeru zaporednega prevoza velja, da so prevozniki, ki so pri takšnem prevozu sodelovali, pošiljatelju solidarno odgovorni, pri čemer se v razmerju med sodelujočimi prevozniki porazdelitev bremena določi na podlagi odgovornosti, ki velja med njimi. Odgovornost v kombiniranem prevozu temelji na principu mrežaste odgovornosti, kar pomeni, da je način oziroma obseg preučevanja odgovornosti prevoznika v kombiniranem prevozu odvisen od kraja nastanka škodnega dogodka oziroma od ureditve odgovornosti v pravu, v katerem se je škoda pripetila. Takšna ureditev v praksi povzroča nemalo težav, zato je vse bolj prevladujoča ureditev multimodalnega prevoza, v okviru katere se kot ključna oseba pojavlja podjemnik multimodalnega prevoza in odgovarja za škodo po enotnem principu, ki temelji na subjektivni odgovornosti z obrnjenim dokaznim bremenom. Princip enotne odgovornosti nedvomno predstavlja izboljšanje položaja pošiljatelja, saj je za celotno pravno razmerje in vse izvedene aktivnosti ves čas povsem jasno, katero pravo se bo uporabilo in kakšne bodo predpostavke odgovornosti. Področje multimodalnega prevoza je urejeno v posameznih prevoznih zakonih, razen v segmentu železniškega prava. Ureditev v nacionalni zakonodaji je izvedena po vzoru ureditve v Konvenciji Združenih narodov o mednarodnem multimodalnem transportu iz leta 1980, ki pa (še) ni v veljavi. Zaradi navedenega je v prihodnosti mogoče pričakovati nadaljnji razvoj tega področja, ki bo zaokrožen s sprejetjem oziroma spremembami obstoječe Konvencije.
Ključne besede:Podprevoz, zaporedni prevoz, kombinirani prevoz, multimodalni prevoz, odgovornost prevoznika, princip enotne odgovornost, princip mrežaste odgovornosti, objektivna odgovornost, subjektivna odgovornost
Leto izida:2016
Založnik:[B. Radolič]
Izvor:Maribor
UDK:347.4/.5:69(043.2)
COBISS_ID:5220395 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:7CRP4LB1
Število ogledov:576
Število prenosov:85
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Področja:PF
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:COOPERATING PERSONS LIABILITY BY CARRIAGE OF GOODS
Opis:The master thesis considers different forms of cooperation of persons in the carriage of goods, considering Slovenian regulations and regulations in the international conventions. A basic division of forms of cooperation of multiple persons based on means of transport and transport pattern, in which the carriage is executed, is presented. With cooperation of multiple persons within the same transport pattern, a subcarriage and a successive carriage are addressed. The key delimitation criteria between individual forms of cooperation among carriers of the same transport pattern is the establishment of the legal relationship and existence of the legal will of the consignor or contract giver, which is that the transport is executed by multiple carriers. At subcarriage, the contract relationship is not between the subcontractor and the consignor, because the latter doesn’t take over the consignment note. The main characteristic of the successive carriage is that a carrier, who entrusts the transport to another carrier, hands over the consignment note. The consequence is that the new carrier enters into a legal relationship between the carrier and the consignor, and becomes a new contracting party. Successive carriage is discussed within an individual transport pattern, where the key differences in regard to the international rules are outlined. In the area of cooperation of multiple carriers from different transport patterns, the thesis considers facts regarding combined or mixed carriage and multimodal transport. In case of combined or mixed carriage, the carriers of different transport patterns cooperate and their liability is regulated following the principle of the network liability. This is also the key difference with the multimodal transport, where the carriers of different transport patterns also cooperate, however the liability for the whole carriage lies with the contractor of the multimodal transport following the principle of uniform liability. Research of the carrier liability within the individual transport pattern and usage of these rules in case of cooperation of multiple carriers, represents the key part of the thesis. Liability of the carrier is regulated by the rules of subjective liability, except in the area of maritime law, where the liability is regulated by the rules of subjective liability with reversal of the burden of proof. The thesis also discusses the differences between regulations of national rules and international conventions. Regarding liability regulation in the case of successive carriage, the carriers, who take part in the carriage, have a joint liability towards the consignor, whereas the liability among the carriers is distributed according to the liability, set up among themselves. The liability in the combined carriage is based on the network liability, which means that the scope of examination of the liability depends on the place of the loss event or on the liability regulation of specific law, under which the loss occurred. In practice, such arrangement is quite demanding, therefore more commonly used is the multimodal transport, where the key person is a contractor, who is liable for the damage under uniformed principle, which is based on the subjective liability with reversal of the burden of proof. The unified principle is without a doubt an enhancement of the consignor’s position, because it is completely clear, which law will be used and what will be the assumptions of liability for the entire legal relationship and all completed activities. The field of multimodal transport is managed in specific transport laws, except in the area of railway law. The arrangement in the national legislation is prepared according to United Nation Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods from 1980, which is not (yet) in effect. Due to above written, we can expect further development of this area, which will be summed up with adoption or modification of the mentioned conven
Ključne besede:Subcarriage, successive carriage, combined or mixed carriage, multimodal transport, liability of the carrier, uniform liability principle, network liability principle, objective liability, subjective liability


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