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Title:PATRONATSKA IZJAVA
Authors:Krajnc, Martina (Author)
Kranjc, Vesna (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf MAG_Krajnc_Martina_2016.pdf (964,21 KB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis (m2)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:V gospodarskem poslovanju vsakodnevno prihaja do poslovnih razmerij, v katerih pogodbene stranke ne izpolnijo obveznosti istočasno. Pogodbena stranka, ki jih izpolni prva, želi določeno zagotovilo oz. zavarovanje, da bo svojo obveznost pravočasno izpolnila tudi druga pogodbena stranka. Tveganje za neizpolnitev oz. zamudo se poveča v gospodarsko negotovih časih. Takrat se poveča uporaba institutov zavarovanja obveznosti, ki jih ustanovijo dolžniki sami ali pa jih zanje ustanovi nekdo tretji. Za primere, ko dolžniki niso sposobni sami ustanoviti ustreznega zavarovanja, hkrati pa nekdo tretji ni pripravljen ustanoviti zakonsko urejenega zavarovanja (npr. poroštvo ali hipoteko), je poslovna praksa ustvarila avtonomni institut zavarovanja obveznosti patronatsko izjavo (letter of comfort, Patronatserklärung). Pod pojmom patronatska izjava razumemo veliko število raznovrstnih izjav, ki segajo od izjav dobre volje z zgolj moralnimi zavezami do izjav, ki mejijo na poroštvo. Patronatske izjave se večinoma uporabljajo med povezanimi družbami, ko obvladujoče družbe iz različnih razlogov (koncernske interne omejitve, omejena izpostavljenost do bank) ne morejo ali ne želijo ustanoviti zakonsko urejenega zavarovanja, želijo pa izkazati določeno podporo odvisni družbi, da lahko ta sklene pravni posel. Vsebine posameznih patronatskih izjav se med seboj precej razlikujejo. Vendar pa jih lahko sistemiziramo v dve večji skupini. Prva so nezavezujoče patronatske izjave, kjer pri patronu ni volje sprejeti pravne zaveze. Za patrona ne predstavljajo finančnih posledic, pomenijo zgolj moralno zavezo. Njihova vrednost je v tem, da jih patron prostovoljno izpolni, da ohrani svoje dobro ime oz. ugled. Druga skupina pa so zavezujoče patronatske izjave, kjer patron sprejme določene pravne zaveze. Patron lahko z zavezujočo patronatsko izjavo sprejme različne zaveze. V praksi so najpogosteje kot zavezujoče patronatske izjave opredeljene izjave, v katerih se patron zaveže, da bo skrbel za to, da bo dolžnik iz temeljnega posla v stanju izpolniti zavarovano obveznost. Če patron svoje obveznosti iz patronatske izjave ne izpolni, je odškodninsko odgovoren zaradi neizpolnitve oz. kršitve obveznosti. V poslovni praksi pogosto srečamo kombinacijo zavezujočih in nezavezujočih patronatskih izjav. Tako npr. patron izjavi, da nima namena zmanjšati udeležbe v odvisni družbi (nezavezujoča patronatska izjava) in da bo v času trajanja razmerja skrbel za to, da bo odvisna družba v stanju izpolniti svoje obveznosti do upnika iz temeljnega posla (zavezujoča patronatska izjava). Obveznosti in pravna narava patronatskih izjav so pogosto predmet sodnih postopkov. Analiza sodne prakse kaže, da sodišča germanskega pravnega sistema pogosteje opredelijo patronatsko izjavo kot zavezujočo kot sodišča common law sistema. Oba pravna sistema pa jasno opredeljujeta, da gre pri patronatski izjavi za samostojen pravni institut lastne vrste, ki je lahko le podoben obstoječim institutom zavarovanja.
Keywords:patronatska izjava, patron, dolžnik, upnik, zavezujoča patronatska izjava, nezavezujoča patronatska izjava, osebno zavarovanje, poroštvo, odškodninska odgovornost, moralna zaveza, pravna zaveza
Year of publishing:2016
Publisher:[I. Gorjup]
Source:Maribor
UDC:346.542(043.2)
COBISS_ID:5188651 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:4XAZEHP6
Views:2355
Downloads:195
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:PF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:LETTER OF COMFORT
Abstract:In business life every day comes to business relationships, in which the contractual parties do not fulfil their obligations simultaneously. The contractual party, which performs as first, wants some assurance or security that also the other contractual party will fulfil its obligation as it dues. The risk of non-performance or delay increases in economic uncertain times. In such times increases the use of institutes of security of obligations, which are founded by debtors or by a third person for the debtor. For cases in which debtors are not able to give a security on their own and at the same time someone third is not prepared to give a security, which is regulated by law (for example: guaranty or mortgage), the business practice created autonomous institute of security letter of comfort (patronatska izjava, Patronatserklärung). In concept of letter of comfort we understand a large number of diverse statements, which reach from statements of good-will with just moral obligations to statements which are close to guaranty. Letters of comfort are usually used among group companies, when majority owners (companies) from different reasons (concern internal limitations, limited exposition towards banks) cannot or do not want to give security regulated by law, but want to give some support to a group company, so that it can conclude a legal transaction. Contexts of individual letters of comfort are very diverse. However we can classify them in two major groups. First group represent non-binding letters of comfort, in which the patron has no will to be legally bound. They have no financial consequences for the patron, they are just moral obligations and their value is that the patron voluntary fulfils his obligations to preserve his good name and reputation. In the second group are binding letters of comfort with which patron accepts legally binding obligations. A patron can with binding letter of comfort accept various obligations. In praxis are most often as binding letters of comfort declared statements, with which patron obliges himself to take care that the main debtor will be in position to fulfil the secured obligation. If the patron does not fulfil his obligation from the letter of comfort he is responsible for the damages because of non-performance or because of breach of the letter of comfort. In business praxis the different types of letters of comfort are often combined, so for example patron declares that he does not intent to diminish his financial interest in dependant group company (non-binding letter of comfort) and that he will take care that the dependant group company will be in position to meet its obligations toward main creditors for the time of open obligations (binding letter of comfort). Obligations which rise from letters of comfort and the legal nature of letters of comfort are often subject of court disputes. The analysis of court judgements shows that courts in German law system quicker decide that a letter of comfort is binding then the courts in common law system. However both legal systems clearly define that a letter of comfort is an independent legal institute of its own kind, which can only be similar to existing institutes of security.
Keywords:letter of comfort, patron, debtor, creditor, binding letter of comfort, non-binding letter of comfort; personal security, guarantee, responsibility for damages, moral obligation, legal obligation


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