| | SLO | ENG | Cookies and privacy

Bigger font | Smaller font

Show document

Title:Dvajseti kongres Komunistične partije Sovjetske zveze
Authors:Rozina, Zala (Author)
Klemenčič, Matjaž (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UN_Rozina_Zala_2016.pdf (1,57 MB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:FF - Faculty of Arts
Abstract:Ko je marca 1953 umrl Josif Visarionovič Stalin, je bilo v Sovjetski zvezi zaznati veliko žalost in zmedo. Umrl je namreč človek, ki je državo preobrazil v svetovno velesilo, pripomogel k pospešeni industrializaciji in – kljub velikim človeškim izgubam – popeljal sovjetske narode iz druge svetovne vojne kot zmagovalec. Na dvajsetem kongresu Komunistične partije Sovjetske zveze, ki je potekal februarja 1956, pa so Stalinu poleg nazivov »naš oče«, »naš vodja« in »naš učitelj« pridali še nekatere druge, manj častne: »morilec«, »blaznež«, »oblastnež«. Številni delegati kongresa so mu pripisali krivdo za razmah kulta osebnosti in njegovih negativnih posledic ter ga obtožili neupoštevanja načela kolektivnega vodstva. Nikita Sergejevič Hruščov, generalni sekretar sovjetske partije, pa je storil še korak naprej. V svojem tajnem referatu je Stalinu očital slabo vojaško poveljevanje in poraze v začetni fazi druge svetovne vojne, napake v zunanji politiki ter globoko krizo kmetijstva. Okrivil ga je smrti preštevilnih članov vojaškega kadra, vidnih partijskih funkcionarjev in članov opozicije, najtesnejših sodelavcev, kulturnikov, znanstvenikov in navadnih državljanov. Čeprav naj bi referat ostal skrivnost, so govorice o obtožbah Stalina dosegle sovjetsko in svetovno javnost že v nekaj tednih oz. mesecih. Odzivi so bili najbolj dramatični v Vzhodni Evropi, medtem ko so na Zahodu že lep čas razpravljali o Stalinovih metodah vladanja. Z nastopom Hruščova se je pričel proces destalinizacije oz. odmika od stalinske politike in diktature enega človeka. Na kongresu so zato med drugim poudarili, da v različnih državah obstajajo različne oblike prehoda v socializem. Kasnejši razvoj dogodkov – zlasti krvavo zatrtje madžarske revolucije jeseni 1956 – pa je pokazal, da so spremembe, ki so jih napovedali Stalinovi nasledniki, v veliki meri ostale zgolj pri besedah in da Sovjetska zveza ni nameravala popustiti vajeti.
Keywords:Sovjetska zveza, stalinizem, kult osebnosti, Josif Visarionovič Stalin, dvajseti kongres Komunistične partije Sovjetske zveze, Nikita Sergejevič Hruščov, destalinizacija.
Year of publishing:2016
Publisher:[Z. Rozina]
Source:Maribor
UDC:94(470+571)"19"(043.2)
COBISS_ID:22098696 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:NSTZDKF1
Views:745
Downloads:126
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:FF
:
  
Average score:(0 votes)
Your score:Voting is allowed only for logged in users.
Share:AddThis
AddThis uses cookies that require your consent. Edit consent...

Hover the mouse pointer over a document title to show the abstract or click on the title to get all document metadata.

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Abstract:When Soviet leader Stalin died in March 1953, the Soviet Union experienced a great deal of sadness and confusion. Dead was the man who turned this country into a world’s leading superpower, who helped accelerate the industrialization and – although many human lives were lost – led Soviet peoples out of the World War II as winners. At the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union that took place in February 1956, Stalin, who was also known by titles such as our father, our leader and our teacher, got many more dishonorable ones: killer, lunatic, domineering man. Several delegates at this Congress blamed Stalin for spreading the personality cult and its negative consequences. Furthermore, they accused him of violating the norms of collective leadership. Nikita Khrushchev, who at the time served as First Secretary of the Soviet party, took one step forward. In his secret report he reproached Stalin with bad military leadership and defeats in the early stages of the World War II, foreign policy mistakes and major agricultural crisis. He blamed him for the death of far too many members of the military, notable party officials and members of the opposition, his coworkers, cultural workers, scientists and ordinary citizens. Even though this report was to stay secret, rumors concerning accusations against Stalin reached the Soviet general public and the whole world already in a couple of weeks and months. The responses were most dramatic in East Europe, while in the West there has been an ongoing talk about Stalin’s ruling methods for quite a long time. Khrushchev initiated a process of De-Stalinization or deviation from Stalin’s policies and dictatorship. Therefore, it was also stressed that the transition to socialism took place in different ways in different countries. The later development of the events – especially the bloody suppression of the Hungarian revolution in autumn 1956 – showed that changes announced by Stalin’s successors remained on paper and that the Soviet Union did not intend to hand over the reins.
Keywords:The Soviet Union, Stalinism, personality cult, Joseph Stalin, the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev, De-Stalinization.


Comments

Leave comment

You have to log in to leave a comment.

Comments (0)
0 - 0 / 0
 
There are no comments!

Back
Logos of partners University of Maribor University of Ljubljana University of Primorska University of Nova Gorica