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Title:V OZADJU SPOLNEGA DIMORFIZMA: TRETJI SPOL KOT DRUŽBENO-KULTURNI KONSTRUKT
Authors:Savarin, Arjana (Author)
Godina Vuk, Vesna (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UN_Savarin_Arjana_2016.pdf (3,23 MB)
MD5: 82D479A23703670BE0C1ED383090A8EF
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:FF - Faculty of Arts
Abstract:V diplomskem delu z naslovom V ozadju spolnega dimorfizma: tretji spol kot družbeno-kulturni konstrukt je opisana totalnost spolnega fenomena, ki je obravnavan v okviru različnih kulturnih svetov oz. z vidika medkulturne variabilnosti tega fenomena. Temeljni namen diplomskega dela je preseči absolutnost in samoumevnost vedno znova prikazanega binarnega vzorca spola oz. spolnega dimorfizma, ki se v kontekstu zahodne kulturne miselnosti vedno znova poudarja. V zahodnih kulturah se kot »normalna« in »naravna« priznavata le moška in ženska spolna kategorija. V nature-nurture razpravi smo s tem namenom prikazali pomen vpliva kulturnih determinant na spolne razlike in njihovo medkulturno variabilnost. Opredelili smo dojemanje in strukturiranje spola v okviru dualistične spolne norme, kot njeno protiutež pa smo v medkulturni primerjavi raziskali različne kulturne skupine (ljudstva), ki v okviru svoje spolne konstrukcije priznavajo sistem multiplih spolnih kategorij. Proučevali smo različne in specifične spolne fenomene, ki so splošno priznane kategorije spolnega sistema, kot so: berdaches v ameriških indijanskih družbah, fa'afafine na Samoi, zaprisežene device na jugovzhodnem Balkanu, bissuje na J. Sulavesiju (Indonezija), muxe v Mehiki in hidžre v Indiji in Pakistanu. Navedeni primeri pričajo o različnem dojemanju in strukturiranju koncepta spola ter s tem povezane spolne identitete in spolnih vlog glede na različna kulturna okolja in kulturno pogojeno socializacijo. Ravno zaradi pomena primarne socializacije pri strukturiranju spola smo raziskali njen pomen pri sprejemanju in oblikovanju spolne identitete z vidika psihoanalitične teorije, teorije socialnega učenja in razvojno kognitivne teorije. V okviru socializacije smo se dotaknili tudi pojava fluidnosti in netradicionalnosti spolnih identitet, ki se vsaj navidezno dopuščajo v okviru zahodnih postmodernih družb. S tem namenom smo opisali pojav interseksualnosti, transseksualnosti, homoseksualnosti in metroseksualnosti ter nazorno prikazali, zakaj se kljub pojavnosti teh različnih spolnih identitet še vedno vztraja pri tradicionalni spolni dihotomiji in heteroseksualni spolni usmeritvi. Kategorijo spola in njeno dojemanje, konstruiranje in razlaganje smo prikazali kot medkulturno variabilni pojav. Tako kot v sklopu naše kulture obstajata dve uradno priznani spolni kategoriji lahko z isto mero verodostojnosti v drugih kulturah priznavajo še tretjo, četrto ali peto spolno kategorijo. Ljudje gledamo vsak kulturni svet skozi očala svoje kulture ter ga tako tudi razumemo in interpretiramo, kar pa še ne pomeni, da je to edina pravilna izbira oz. možnost. To je le naš vidik, obstaja pa jih vsaj toliko, kot je na svetu različnih kultur.
Keywords:spol, biološki spol, družbeni spol, seksualnost, spolne razlike (nature-nurture razprava), spolna identiteta, spolne vloge, spolni stereotipi, družbeno-kulturna konstrukcija spola, spolni dimorfizem, tretji spol, multiple spolne kategorije, medkulturna primerjava, socializacija, psihoanalitične teorije, teorije socialnega učenja, kognitivna razvojna teorija, sprememba spola, interseksualnost, transseksualnost, homoseksualnost, metroseksualnost, matriarhat, prisilna heteroseksualnost, Ojdipov kompleks.
Year of publishing:2016
Publisher:[A. Savarin]
Source:Maribor
UDC:305:303.446.2(043.2)
COBISS_ID:22473480 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:5SZWKJOA
Views:1423
Downloads:294
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Categories:FF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:BEYOND SEXUAL DIMORPHISM: THE THIRD GENDER AS A SOCIOCULTURAL CONSTRUCT
Abstract:The diploma thesis entitled Beyond Sexual Dimorphism – the Third Gender as a Sociocultural Construct discusses the totality of sexual phenomenon which is examined in the context of different cultural backgrounds or in terms of cross-cultural variability of this phenomenon. The fundamental purpose of the thesis is to go beyond the absoluteness and self-evidence of the frequently displayed binary model of gender or sexual dimorphism, which has been repeatedly emphasized in the context of western cultural mindset. In the western cultures only the male and female gender category have been recognized as »normal« and »natural«. With this purpose, the importance that cultural determinants have on gender differences and on their cross-cultural variability has been discussed in the »nature-nurture« debate. We have defined the perception and the structuring of gender in the context of dualistic gender norms. For its counterpart, in terms of intercultural comparison, we have explored different cultural groups (of peoples) having recognized the system of multiple gender categories within the framework of their sexual structures. From the perspective of various cultures (mainly non-European) we have studied different and specific sexual phenomena which have been generally recognized as categories of sexual system, such as: berdaches in American Indian societies, fa'afafine in Samoa, sworn virgins in the southeastern Balkans, bissu in South Sulawesi (Indonesia), muxe in Mexico city and hijra in India and Pakistan. The given examples indicate a different perception and structuring of the gender concept and related gender identity and roles with reference to different cultural backgrounds and to culturally conditioned socialisation. As a matter of fact – because of the significance that primary socialization has on gender structuring – we have deepened our study on its importance in the adoption and development of gender identity and have done this in the light of psychoanalytic theory, social learning theory and cognitive developmental theory. With regard to the importance covered by the socialization process in structuring the gender identity, we have also touched the phenomenon of the »fluidity« and the formation process of different non-traditional gender identities which, at least apparently, have been allowed in the postmodern western societies. With this intention, we have examined the presence of the phenomenon of intersexuality, transsexuality, homosexuality, metrosexuality. Moreover, we have clearly demonstrated how, despite the presence of different gender identities, the traditional dichtonomy of gender and the heterosexual orientation have been maintained. The present thesis displays the category of gender and its perception, construction and interpretation as a variable cross-cultural phenomenon. As in the case of our culture – where two gender categories are officially recognized – in other cultures the presence of a third, a fourth or even a fifth sexual category is recognized as well and with the same degree of credibility. Each world culture has been contemplated through the glasses of our own culture. Through this vision, we are able to interpret and to understand other cultural realities. However, this does not mean that our conclusions are the only correct options of seeing things. This is only our own cultural aspect of interpretation. Outside, there are as many aspects of interpreting social categories as is the number of the different world's cultures.
Keywords:sex, biological sex, gender, sexuality, gender differences (nature – nurture debate), gender identity, gender roles, gender stereotypes, socio-cultural construction of gender, sexual dimorphism, third sex, multiple sexual categories, cross-cultural comparison, socialization, psychoanalytic theory, social learning theory, cognitive development theory, sex change, intersexuality, transsexuality, homosexuality, metrosexuality, matriarchate, compulsory heterosexuality, Oedipal complex.


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