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Title:TERITORIALNA OBRAMBA VZHODNOŠTAJERSKE POKRAJINE (7. PŠTO VŠP) V VOJNI ZA SLOVENIJO 1991
Authors:Horvat, Mladen (Author)
Friš, Darko (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Kladnik, Tomaž (Co-mentor)
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Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis (m2)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:FF - Faculty of Arts
Abstract:V osemdesetihih letih 20. stoletja je jugoslovansko federacijo začela pretresati gospodarska kriza, ki je kmalu prerasla tudi v politično. Do izraza je prišla predvsem v Sloveniji, kjer so se začela trenja med republiškimi in zveznimi institucijami, predvsem Jugoslovansko ljudsko armado (JLA). Po prvih demokratičnih volitvah aprila 1990 se je poglobila do te mere, da je armada štela za nujno, da se razoroži slovenska Teritorialna obramba (TO). Ta je bila ustanovljena leta 1968; čeprav je načeloma veljala za dopolnitev JLA, ki ji je bila do takrat v kadrovskem oziru tudi že povsem podrejena, jo je armada vseskozi dojemala kot grožnjo svojemu položaju in državni enotnosti. Razorožitev je bila izpeljana maja 1990 po nalogu vojaškega vrha, ob pomoči lojalnih slovenskih oficirjev v poveljniški strukturi Teritorialne obrambe. Dejanje je povzročilo odpor med večino moštva njenih pripadnikov. Nekateri izmed njih so v tajnosti začeli ustanavljati Manevrsko strukturo narodne zaščite (MSNZ), za kar je tudi sicer obstajala pravna podlaga v takrat veljavni zakonodaji. Njen cilj je bila zaščita slovenske demokracije in suverenosti pred nadaljnimi posegi armade in zveznih organov. Formalno je bila ustanovljena septembra 1990.Po sprejemu ustreznih zakonskih aktov s strani slovenskih državnih organov in uspešni izpeljavi naloge, za katero je bila formirana, je bila oktobra 1990 razpuščena. Ponovno je postala sestavni del zdaj reformirane TO, ki je bila v mirnem času podrejena izključno legitimnim institucijam Republike Slovenije. Nova Teritorialna obramba je bila zdaj organizirana v 7 pokrajinskih štabov (PŠTO), med katerimi je bil tudi 7. pokrajinski štab, ki je pokrival območje vzhodne Štajerske in Prekmurja, sestavljalo pa ga je 11 občinskih štabov (OŠTO). Ostanek leta 1990 je potekal v znamenju usposabljanja in priprav na morebiten konflikt z Jugoslovansko ljudsko armado - to se je še okrepilo po plebiscitu 23. decembra 1990, na katerem se je ogromna večina volivcev izrekla zaslovensko neodvisnost.Sočasno z dokončnim sklepom o razglasitvi neodvisnosti Slovenije od federacije je bila konec maja 1991 izvedena nova reorganizacija Teritorialne obrambe. Občinski štabi so bili ukinjeni, namesto njih pa so bili ustanovljeni območni štabi TO (Obm.ŠTO). 7. pokrajinski štab je sestavljalo pet območnih štabov: 71. (mariborski), 73. (ljutomerski), 75. (murskosoboški), 77. (ptujski) in 79. (slovenskobistriški). Ko je slovenska skupščina 25. junija 1991 sprejela Temeljno ustavno listino o samostojnosti in neodvisnosti Republike Slovenije (RS) ter Deklaracijo o neodvisnosti, s čimer je bila Slovenija naslednjega dne tudi uradno razglašena za suvereno in neodvisno državo, je 7. pokrajinski štab dobil nalogo zavarovati mlado državo pred možnostjo agresije s strani Jugoslovanske ljudske armade.27. junija so tanki zapustili vojašnice v Mariboru (sedežu 31. korpusa Jugoslovanske ljudske armade) in krenili proti meji, oklepne koloneiz Hrvaške pa so skušale prodreti na slovensko ozemlje. To je bil začetek vojne za Slovenijo, ki je formalno trajala do 7. julija, ko je bila podpisana t. i. Brionska deklaracija.Ko je nato tudi Predsedstvo Jugoslavije 18. julija nepričakovano sprejelo sklep o umiku Jugoslovanske ljudske armade iz Slovenije, je Teritorialna obramba postopno pričela z demobilizacijo enot: preostale so opravljale predvsem varovanje meje s Hrvaško, hkrati pa ohranjale pripravljenost za primer ponovnega izbruha sovražnosti. Negotovost je trajala vse do 26. oktobra 1991, ko so še zadnji pripadniki zvezne vojske zapustili Slovenijo. Vojne je bilo očitno zares konec. Za uspehe v 44 bojnih operacijah proti neprimerno bolje oboroženemu sovražniku, so bile enote 7. pokrajinskega štaba nagrajene z 10 bojnimi spominskimi znaki, največjim številom v vsej državi.
Keywords:Teritorialna obramba (TO), 7. pokrajinski štab TO Vzhodnoštajerske pokrajine (7. PŠTO VŠP), Jugoslovanska ljudska armada (JLA), Manevrska struktura narodne zaščite (MSNZ), osamosvojitvena vojna
Year of publishing:2015
Publisher:[M. Horvat]
Source:Maribor
UDC:355(497.412)"1991"(043.2)
COBISS_ID:21823752 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:UDQ3KHSR
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:TERRITORIAL DEFENCE OF VZHODNOŠTAJERSKA REGION (7TH RHQ TD) IN WAR FOR SLOVENIA 1991
Abstract:During the 80's of the previous century, Yugoslav federation became embroiled in economic and political crisis, which started to manifest itself in the pronounced tensions between Slovenia and federal institutions, especially the Yugoslav People's Army (YPA). After the first democratic elections in April 1990, which brought victory to the opposition (DEMOS), it deteriorated to such stage, that the Army found it wise to disarm the Slovenian Territorial defence (TD). Although it was created in 1968 as an auxiliary to the Yugoslav People's Army, latter increasingly regarded it as threat to its role and position. Disarmament was carried out in May 1990, with the help of Slovenian officers, loyal to the Army. The act created uproar among Territorial defence members, some of whom (in secrecy) started creating National protection force (organization in Slovenian called MSNZ). Its aim was protection of Slovenian democracy and sovereignty against further encroachments of the Army and federal organs. It was formally established at the beginning of September 1990.Completing the task and following necessary legal enactments from Slovenian authorities, it was then disbanded, becoming the integral part of restructured Territorial defence, subordinated exclusively to the legitimate institutions of Slovenian republic (October 1990). Reformed Territorial defence was organized in 7 regional Headquarters: eastern Slovenia was covered by the 7th Vzhodnoštajerka region Headquarters, with the 11 municipal Headquarters.The remaining months of 1990 were spent in training and preparations for the possible conflict with Yugoslav People's Army, which were even intensified after the Slovenian plebiscite on the December 23, when the vast majority of the voters declared in favour of the independence of Slovenia.Concurrently with the final decision to declare independence from Yugoslavia, in May 1991 came another reorganization of Territorial defence. Municipal Headquarters were disbanded and district Headquarters formed instead. The 7th Vzhodnoštajerska region consisted of 71st Maribor, 73rd Ljutomer, 75th Murska Sobota, 77th Ptuj and 79th Slovenska Bistrica district Headquarters. When Slovenian parliament, on June 25 1991, passed The Basic Charter on the Independence and Sovereignty of the Republic of Slovenia and the Declaration of Independence, and formally pronounced Slovenia sovereign and independent state the next day, the 7th Headquarters of Territorial defence was tasked with protecting the young state against the possibility of the Army aggression.On the June 27, tanks left the barracks in Maribor (the Headquarters of Yugoslav People's Army 31th Corps), starting towards border, while armed columns from Croatia moved into Slovenia. It was the start of war for Slovenia, which formally lasted until July 7, when the so called Brioni declaration was signed. After the decision of the Yugoslav presidency on July 18 to withdraw Army units from Slovenia completely, Territorial defence gradually started demobilising, keeping most of the units still in service for guarding the border with Croatia, but never the less in preparation for the possibility of renewed conflict. The uncertainty lasted until October 26 1991, when the last federal soldiers finally left Slovenia. Despite the caution, the war was really over. 7th Vzhodnoštajerska region Headquarters came out of it as undisputable winner, executing all tasks without any fatalities among its members, practically neutralizing the opponent and confiscating large amounts of military hardware. For its successes in 44 combat operations against vastly better armed opponent, it was rewarded with 10 Commemorative Combat Badges, largest number in the country.
Keywords:Territorial defence, 7th Vzhodnoštajerska region headquarter of Territorial defence, Yugoslav People’s Army, National protection forces, Slovenian war for independence


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