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Title:MIROVNE OPERACIJE OZN: ZAŠČITA CIVILISTOV NA MIROVNIH OPERACIJAH PRIMER UNAMID
Authors:Györek, Roky (Author)
Tratnik, Matjaž (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UN_Gyorek_Roky_2015.pdf (1,36 MB)
MD5: 50B49B32EF50BB1FD4BC6B11524C74D9
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:V diplomskem delu sem predstavil zaščito civilistov na mirovnih operacijah Organizacije združenih narodov, ki predstavljajo sodobno sredstvo sistema kolektivne varnosti s katerim se preko zaščite civilnega prebivalstva zagotavlja tudi mednarodni mir in varnost. Nalogo pa sem zaključil s predstavitvijo in analizo hibridne mirovne operacije OZN in AU v regiji Darfur (UNAMID), saj ta predstavlja eno izmed najpomembnejših operacij s področja zaščite civilistov. V sodobnem času je koncept mednarodne varnosti tesno povezan s konceptom človeške varnosti katerega temeljna elementa sta osebna varnost in varnost skupnosti, ki se zagotavljata tako, da so osebe in tudi celotne skupnosti, ki predstavljajo civilno prebivalstvo, varne pred različnimi oblikami nasilja, ki izvira bodisi iz različnih oblik oboroženega spopada bodisi iz izvrševanja oblasti s strani suverene države. Mednarodna skupnost je prav zaradi slednjih situacij razvila doktrino odgovornosti za zaščito, na podlagi katerega utemeljuje tudi pravico do humanitarne intervencije, ki jo lahko izvaja tudi v različnih oblikah mirovnih operacij. Mirovne operacije zajemajo široko paleto aktivnosti, saj so se skozi zgodovino razvile od tradicionalnih operacij, ki jih je Generalna skupščina prvič predvidela z resolucijo »Združeni za mir« in so osnovana na načelih neagresije, privolitve in nepristranskosti, do modernih mirovnih operacij, ki pri oblikovanju in izvrševanju svojega mandata niso več tako omejena z omenjenimi načeli, to pa pomeni, da so mirovne operacije postale učinkovito sredstvo za zagotavljanje zaščite civilistov. Pravni okvir današnjih mirovnih operacij, ki se nanaša na zaščito civilistov, zajema predvsem mednarodnopravne instrumente s področja mednarodnega humanitarnega prava in mednarodnega prava človekovih pravic ter resolucije, poročila in različne druge odločitve na temo zaščite civilistov, ki jih sprejemajo Varnostni svet, generalni sekretar in številna specifična telesa Organizacije združenih narodov. Uporabljivost omenjenih virov na mirovnih operacijah pa je odvisna od številnih dejavnikov kot so na primer dejstvo obstoja oboroženega spopada in mednarodna ali interna narava konflikta. Tako se je v primeru kršitev zoper civilno prebivalstvo mednarodna skupnost odzvala tudi v primeru vojne v Sudanu. Sprva je Varnostni svet iz razloga zaščite civilistov v regiji Darfur na podlagi doktrine odgovornosti za zaščito sprejel resolucijo št. S/RES/1706, ki je bila prva resolucija s katero je Varnostni svet na podlagi omenjene doktrine nameraval ustanoviti mirovno operacijo s pooblastili za vsiljevanje miru. Čeprav je omenjena resolucija ostala le mrtva črka na papirju je mednarodna skupnost eventualno le uspela z resolucijo št. S/RES/1769 ustanoviti mirovno operacijo preko katere se še danes nudi zaščita civilistov v Darfurju. V obdobju osmih let od kdaj UNAMID obstaja pa je mednarodna skupnost pod okriljem te operacije z uporabo različnih pristopov bolj ali manj uspešno podpirala mirovne sile pri izvrševanju mandata, ki se konstantno razvija, da bi sledili tako vedno spreminjajočim se okoliščinam na terenu in v Varnostnem svetu.
Keywords:Mednarodna skupnost, mirovne operacije, operacije za ohranjanje miru, zaščita civilistov, mednarodno humanitarno pravo, mednarodno pravo človekovih pravic, Varnostni svet, Organizacija združenih narodov, hibridna mirovna operacija Organizacije združenih narodov in Afriške unije, UNAMID
Year of publishing:2015
Publisher:[R. Györek]
Source:Maribor
UDC:341.236(043.2)
COBISS_ID:4982827 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:AHHYPEDJ
Views:1003
Downloads:153
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Categories:PF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:UN PEACE OPERATIONS: PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS IN PEACEOPERATIONS: THE CASE OF UNAMID
Abstract:In my Diploma work I have presented a protection of civilians in Uited Nations peace operations representing a contemporary measure of the collective security system by means of which the international peace and security can be maintained throughout the protection of civil population. I have concluded the Diploma work by presentation and analysis of the African Union / United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID) as it is one of the most important operations in the field of protection of civilians. In contemporary times, the concept of international security is closely linked with the concept of human security including the basic elements of the personal safety and the collective safety of community to be provided so that the persons as well as the whole communities representing the civil population are safe from various forms of violence arising either from various forms of armed conflict or from authority exercised by a sovereign state. For that very reason, the international community has put forward a responsibility to protect doctrine on the basis of which it is grounding also the right to humanitarian intervention that can be carried out by various forms of peace operations. The peace operations comprise a wide scope of activities as these evolved through history from traditional operations foreseen first by the United Nations General Assembly resolution »Uniting for Peace« based on principles of non-aggression, consent and impartiality, and to contemporary peace operations which are not as much limited by the said principles for the formation and implementation of its mandate, and consequently peace operations have become an effective instrument to ensure the protection of civilians. The legal framework of today's peace operations refering to the protection of civilians comprises primarily the international legal instruments in the field of the international humanitarian law and the international human rights law as well as the resolutions, reports and various other decisions relating to the protection of civilians and which are adopted by the Security Council, Secretary General and by numerous specific bodies of the United Nations Organization. The applicability of the above stated sources in peacekeeping operations depends, however, on various factors, e.g. de facto existent armed conflict and the international or internal nature of conflicts. Thus, in case of violations aimed at civil population, the international community responded in case of the war in Sudan, as well. At first, and for the reason of protection of civilians in the Darfur region, the Security Council adopted the Resolution No. S/RES/1706 in accoradnce with the doctrine of protection responsibility being the first resolution by which the Security Council intended to launch a peace operation by authority to impose peace on the basis of the said doctrine. Although the said resolution remained just empty letters on paper the international community was eventually successful to launch a peacekeeping operation by Resolution No. S/RES/1769 by which the protection of civilians in Darfur is still in force nowadays. However, during the period of eight years since the UNAMID has been in existence, the international community has been more or less successful in enforcement of the peacekeeping efforts by applying different approaches to the performance of its mandate being constantly in progress in order to follow constantly changing circumstances out on the scene and in the Security Council.
Keywords:International community, peace operations, peacekeeping operations, protection of civilians, international humanitarian law, international human rights law, Security Council, United Nations, African Union and United Nations hybrid peacekeeping operation, UNAMID


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