|Abstract:||The thesis is entirely dedicated to the role of witness in civil litigation. The witness as evidence enables the court to ascertain the veracity of the parties' arguments relating to the legally relevant facts in civil proceedings. As witnesses may be heard only people, who are able to give information on the facts to be proved, that is any person, including minors, people with various physical drawbacks, provided that they are able to explain their perceptions, facts that are legally relevant or probative before the courts. Testimony and the reliability of the witnesses are mainly affected by perception, memory and memory reproduction, errors can occur in all three.
Already at the beginning of the chapter on witnesses the Civil Procedure Act stipulates that everyone who is summoned as a witness needs to attend the procedure, and if not otherwise provided by law, also testify. General obligation to testify consist of three duties, namely the duty of arrival, the obligation to testify in the strict sense and duty to speak the truth.
However, some people cannot be heard as witnesses, some are exempt from testifying in certain cases and in some cases they may refuse to answer a particular question. As witness must not be heard anyone, who by giving testimony would violate the obligation of official or military secret, until the competent authority shall not relieve those duties. Privileged witnesses are witnesses, who can under the statutory conditions, refuse to testify. Their testimony is dependent on their will, if they decide to testify they can, if they refuse they do not. Such a witness assesses the situation and decides to protect the confidentiality of the relationship, therefore professional secrets, or prioritize the right of parties to justice. The law gives witnesses the opportunity to renounce answer individual questions, if he or she has good reasons for it.
The party in civil proceedings must specify in evidence proposal, which facts should be proven using the proposed evidence and determine how evidence (witness testimony) should contribute to the establishment of a given fact. The court must warn the witness that he or she is bound to speak the truth, to not conceal anything, concurrently must be also noted the consequence of perjury. The witnesses are heard individually and without the presence of witnesses who will be heard later, they respond to the questions orally. The witness is entitled to reimbursement of travel expenses and the cost of food and accommodation, as well as to reimbursement of lost earnings.|