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Title:Actio libera in causa
Authors:Zahrastnik, Kristjan (Author)
Korošec, Damjan (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Šošić, Miha (Co-mentor)
Files:.pdf UN_Zahrastnik_Kristjan_2015.pdf (590,15 KB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Slovenski kazensko pravni sistem je oblikovan po sodobnem evrokontinentalnem kazenskem pravu, ki sledi nemški tradiciji splošnega pojma kaznivega dejanja. Drugačen koncept je uveljavljen v anglo-ameriškem kazenskem pravnem sistemu. Splošni pojem kaznivega dejanja je v slovenskem kazenskem pravu sestavljen iz treh elementov: izpolnjenosti biti kaznivega dejanja, protipravnosti in krivde. Kaznivo dejanje lahko izvrši le tisti, ki je v prištevnem stanju, saj lahko le-ta nadzoruje in pravilno zaznava okoliščine, ki ga obdajajo, zato tudi zakon določa, da tisti, ki je bil ob izvršitvi kaznivega dejanja v neprištevnem stanju, ni kriv. V orisu razvoja instituta actio libera in causa diplomsko delo predstavi zanimivejše in pomembnejše ureditve, ki so vplivale na razvoj. Poseben poudarek je na razvoju ureditve instituta v Jugoslaviji. Pojasnjene so tudi spremembe kazenskega zakonika v povezavi z navedenim institutom. Institut actio libera in causa pride v poštev pri ugotavljanju, ali je podana krivda storilca, saj določa krivdo storilca kaznivega dejanja v primeru, ko si sam z uporabo drog ali drugimi psihoaktivnimi snovmi ali kako drugače povzroči neprištevnost, če je pred izvršenim kaznivim dejanjem podana njegova krivda, ki jo zakon določa za to dejanje. Dejali bi lahko, da sta potrebna dva elementa za krivdo neprištevnega storilca, prvi je, da se je storilec sam spravil v neprištevno stanje, za izpolnitev drugega elementa je treba storilcu očitati krivdo, preden se je spravil v stanje neprištevnosti. Razlikujemo med tremi možnostmi ravnanja storilca. Pri prvi možnosti storilec oblikuje svoj naklep glede izvršitve kaznivega dejanja še v stanju prištevnosti. Druga možnost je, kadar storilec nima naklepa glede kaznivega dejanja v normalnem duševnem stanju, ampak vseeno izvrši protipravno dejanje v neprištevnem stanju. Tretja možnost se nanaša na različne situacije, ki nastanejo v javnem prometu, kadar storilec zaradi utrujenosti in izčrpanosti zaspi in izvrši kaznivo dejanje. Kot je bilo že omenjeno, velja v Angliji anglo-ameriški kazenski pravni sistem, v tem sistemu se ne uporablja instituta actio libera in causa, ampak imajo podobna pravila z namenom kaznovanja storilcev, ki se prostovoljno spravijo v stanje omamljenosti in izvršijo kaznivo dejanje. V nemškem pravu kazniva dejanja izvršena v alkoholiziranem stanju, razvrščajo v dve kategoriji. V prvo kategorijo zapadejo kazniva dejanja, za katere uporabimo institut actio libera in causa. V drugo skupino pa uvrščamo izvršena kazniva dejanja, za katere se ne more uporabiti navedeni institut, ampak zanje velja subsidiarno pravilo, ki je zapisano v zakonu in ureja popolno omamljenost. V nadaljevanju je predstavljena preučena slovenska sodna praksa v povezavi z institutom actio libera in causa, opisane so tudi pomembnejše sodbe angleških sodišč, v katerih se opazi podobnost z institutom actio libera in causa. Preučena sodna praksa nemških sodišč vsebuje sodbi, ki prikazujejo uporabo člena popolne omamljenosti.
Keywords:actio libera in causa, neprištevnost, duševno stanje, alkohol, droga, psihoaktivne snovi, krivda
Year of publishing:2015
Publisher:[K. Zahrastnik]
Source:Radeče
UDC:343.91(043.2)
COBISS_ID:5075755 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:J7OGEFRO
Views:1511
Downloads:174
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Categories:PF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Actio libera in causa
Abstract:The Slovenian criminal justice system is designed according to modern Euro-Continental criminal law which, in turn, is in keeping with the German tradition of the general concept of a criminal offence. A different concept is established in the Anglo-American criminal justice system. In Slovenian criminal law, the general concept of a criminal offence consists of three components: fulfilling the criteria of a criminal offence, illegality and guilt. An offence can only be committed by someone who is in sane state, as only a sane person can control and correctly perceive the circumstances around them, which is why the law also determines that someone who was in an insane state when they committed the crime cannot be guilty. As part of the outline of the development of the actio libera in causa doctrine, the diploma thesis presents all the more interesting and important arrangements that had an effect on the development of this doctrine. Special focus has been put on the development of the organisation of the doctrine in Yugoslavia. The amendments made to the Criminal Law Code in relation to the aforementioned doctrine are also explained. The doctrine of actio libera in causa is applicable when establishing whether the offender is guilty, as it establishes the guilt of the offender of a crime, whose insanity was self-induced through indulgence in drugs, or in any other ways, shall be deemed to be criminally liable if his guilt, which constitutes a statutory element of the offence in question, is established. We could say that two components are in fact required to establish the guilt of an insane offender; the first component being that the offender put themselves in a state of insanity, and to fulfill the second component, the offender must have guilt before they got themselves into a state of insanity. We differ between three types of offender conduct. In the first possibility, the offender already forms their intent to commit a crime while they are sane. The second possibility is that the offender has no intention to commit a crime when in a normal state, however they nevertheless carry out the unlawful act in a state of insanity. The third possibility refers to the various situations that arise in public traffic when the offender falls asleep due to tiredness and exhaustion and commits a crime. As already mentioned previously, the Anglo-American criminal justice system is in force in England. This system does not apply the actio libera in causa doctrine, however they have similar rules which serve the purpose of punishing offenders who voluntarily put themselves into a state of inebriation and commit crimes. In German law, criminal offences committed when under the influence of alcohol are classified into two categories. Criminal offences that apply the doctrine of actio libera in causa fall into the first category. In the second category fall those criminal offences where the stated doctrine cannot be applied, however these crimes are subject to a subsidiary rule which is written into the law and deals with drunken stupor. In continuation, the studied Slovenian case law relating to the doctrine of actio libera in causa is presented, the more important decisions of English courts in which a similarity can be observed to the institute of actio libera in causa are also described. The studied case law of German courts includes two decisions pertaining to application of the article on drunken stupor.
Keywords:actio libera in causa, insanity, mental state, alcohol, drugs, psychoactive substances, guilt


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